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Adolescence psychology

By roxy3618 Dec 03, 2013 671 Words
Adolescence Psychology 3/2/11
Multiple Choice 30 questions, Chapters 1-4
Early, Middle & Late Adolescence, Emerging Adulthood, Learning or Information Processes Theories. Piaget, Freud, Free Fundamental Changes (John Hill) Ecological perspective, Bronsenbrenner (main developmental changes) Adolescence Marginality, Ruth Benedict (differences between clarity and continuity), Puberty (biological changes, contextual aspects that can effect the timing of puberty) Endocrine system HPG access, roles of hormones in puberty (are they new?) Thermostat concept. Early vs. Late puberty whether if it effects males or females differently, eating disorders, cognitive changes (adolescence brain, the different structures, frontal cortex, limbic system) Impacts of these changes, problem solving, risk taking, changes in intellect , social transitions (elongation of adolescence, a new concept during the industrial revolution) legal implications of adolescence, clarity vs. continuity, Discontinuous Society. What is changing in adolescence in their environment and family. Parenting styles. Sibling difference and family structure. Authoritative (high responsiveness high demandingness) responsible, confident, adaptive, creative, more curious, socially skilled and successful in school Authoritarian (low responsiveness high demandingness) dependent, passive, less socially adept, confident, curious Indulgent (low responsiveness, high demanding) less mature, irresponsible, more conforming and less apt leaders Indifferent (low responsiveness low demand) delinquent behavior ,sex drugs, and alcohol Parenting and Temperament

Same Parenting+ different temperament -> different outcome
Adolescence also elicit different parental strategies and behaviors. With greater maternal control adolescence are less likely to be delinquent. Ethnic Differences in Parenting Styles
Authoritative parenting less prevalent among Black, Asian, or Hispanic families than among white families in the U.S Beneficial effects are found for all ethnic groups
Why? Could it ever be beneficial, Use caution in interpreting Adverse effects greater fro white adolescents than for ethnic minorities

Autonomy & Attachment in the Family
Those who assert their own opinions:
-higher self-esteem
-more mature coping
Those with little autonomy
-risk for depression, low self-esteem
Adolescents who don’t feel connected
more likely to develop behavior problems
Early Adolescence: Sibling Conflict increases
During Adolescence siblings become
-more equal
-more distan
less emotionally intense
Quality of par-child relationship
Quality of sibling relationship
Relationships with peers
Same –sex vs. Mixed-sex Siblings
- Mixed-sex less close during early adolescence; more closer later Genes vs. Envir: Sibling Differences
Two types of environmental influences
shared environmental influences
non-shared environmental influence
Sibling Differences
Siblings may have different family experiences
treated differently by parents
perceive similar experiences in different ways
Different peer groups/nonshared
75% of treatment(tx)by parents is similar between kids
Differences are okay unless “unfair”
Causes strain on sibling relationship, tx of siblings different but well: Better relationships, decrease rivalry
Sibling deidentification - trying to distinguish self from sibling can also diminish feelings of competition THE CHANGING FAMILY: DIVORCE
Dramatic increase in the divorce rate between 1960 and 1980
30% of today’s teenagers will experience their parents’ divorce & have 5 years in single-parent home Divorce varies with education
EFFECT Of DIVORCE
Greater impact on school-aged than preschool or college age
Quality of relationships> # of parents in the home (ex – step-families) Process of divorce is hard (improves after- 2 years) e.g – single-parent is easier than divornced-parent Likely via effects on quality of parenting

Divorced-parent isn’t so bad
rate parents as “friendlier” – argue less
Most children of divorce don’t have significant problems
Protective effects of extended family; black adolescents may cope better with divorce. Effects are seen pre-divorces (i.e conflict is to blame)
Impact is greater when:
Conflict is overt ( depression, aggression, delinquency)
When they get involved/ blame them selves
Spills into parent-child relationship (irritable)
Long term effects – sleeper effects
Don’t emerge until later- emotional, behavioral problems?
Why?
Contact with parents post-divorce (esp father)?
Conflict bad, non-conflict good
Financial support from father `> good bx, school
Individual Differences in the Effects of Divorce
Children differ in their vulnerability to the effects of divorce, In general, immediate problems are relatively more common among: Boys, younger children, children with difficult temperament, children who do not have supportive relationships with adults outside the immediate family.

Changing Family: Economic Strain and poverty
Economic strain, harsher, inconsistent, less involved parents, aggression, depression repeat bad bxs in own family.

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