Among the behavioural disorders that are commonly diagnosed, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent among youth and children. It is a persistent disorder that is attributed to neurobehavioral problems. About 3%-5% of all the children in America are affected by ADHD (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The disorder is characterized by inability to concentrate or focus on a task and exercise behavioural inhibition that is normally related to age. There are several warning signs which can indicate the possibility that a child may be affected by the disorder. These include difficulties adhering to instructions, talking a lot, disorganization, leaving homework or other chores unfinished, and having problems paying attention to details or responding (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The fact that the disorder is considerably prevalent and costly has prompted research efforts in finding treatment and management approaches for ADHD.
The research into this mental illness has been largely inspired by findings regarding its physiological basis which has paved way for discovering treatment approaches. It is imperative for those taking care of children affected with ADHD to understand the diagnosis, prognosis and phenomenology of ADHD so as to provide quality care for the affected (Sefa, 2007). In this paper, the physiological basis as well as the symptoms of ADHD will be discussed. In addition, the paper will discuss a biological approach to ADHD treatment and compare and contrast the genetic and environmental influences of the disorder. Finally, a summary of two articles regarding the current trends in ADHD treatment and prognosis will be given.
Physiological basis of ADHD
The aetiology of ADHD is largely attributed to neurochemical or neurobiological aspects of the body functions. According to Psychology