Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder:
Treatments and Classroom Interventions
Florida International University
Submitted to Martha Pelaez
April 10, 2014
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a rather common behavior disorder that occurs amongst children, adolescents, and adults which is typically treated with psychotropic medications, behavioral intervention strategies, and other mediations. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), ADHD is characterized by ubiquitous and developmentally inappropriate difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Due to these impairments, children with ADHD can cause significant classroom disruption in which in turn inhibits their ability to learn, as well as affects their environment, which in turn hinders the learning of their peers.
This research paper reviews the existing literature in behavioral interventions commonly used with students of ADHD diagnosis. Interventions that were researched were antecedent based intervention, consequence based intervention, self-regulation intervention, academic intervention, and home-school communication programs. Upon reviewing the literature and examining several studies, it would appear that the best solution would be a combination of several intervention programs that eventually lead to self-management as the ultimate singular strategy for the ADHD student.
ADHD is a brain condition that is typically diagnosed in childhood with a rate of 3%-7% of school-aged children exhibiting these behaviors. Impacting children in a myriad of ways, ADHD symptoms include inability to focus for extended periods of time, difficulty in paying attention to details with a tendency to make careless mistakes, turning in work that is often messy, difficulty completing schoolwork, frequent shifts from one activity to another, fidgeting and squirming in seat, excessive talking, impatience, blurting out answers, initiating conversations at inappropriate times, and difficulty following directions, (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). As a result of the many barriers these students face, academic and social repercussions occur. These students often have a dislike or avoid activities that require them to sustain their self-application or mental effort.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are three subtypes of ADHD. The first and most common is Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type, which is used when six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and six or more symptoms of inattention are observed for a period of six months or longer. The second subtype is predominantly inattentive type which is used when six or more symptoms of inattention are observed but less than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are observed. Finally the third subtype is predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type. These symptoms must have caused impairment before the age of seven, although many individuals may be diagnosed years after the symptoms have persisted.
The consistent disruptive behavior of ADHD students creates a challenge for the classroom teacher, for if these behaviors are not mediated serious academic and social implications occur for the both the student and his/her classmates. Often teachers have to stop instruction in order to correct behavior, interrupting the academic direction of the class. Another effect of this behavior is peer rejection. Due to their disruptive behavior, ADHD students experience negative social relations with their peers. Because of the severity of this disability, it is imperative that effective treatments are implemented to improve the academic and social well being of the ADHD student.
Psychotropic medications are a common method used to treat ADHD students. Although many ADHD children take medications to reduce...
References: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and
statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text
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