Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
The Impact on Learning
Table of contents
Impact on learning
Reflection and conclusions
The author of this report chooses to write about a child with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and from now on will be referred to as ADHD. He is at present studying to be a Special needs assistant at Waterford College of further education. His work placement is in a crèche where he sometimes helps a child who not diagnosed with ADHD, the staff think he may have the condition. It is hoped by compiling this report he will get a better understanding of the the condition and the child. The author used the internet to compile this report.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a medical/neurobiological disorder in which the brain’s neurotransmitter chemicals, noradrenalin and dopamine do not work properly. It is a disorder that, without proper identification, treatment and management, can have serious and long lasting consequences or obstacles for a sufferer. It is a long-term condition which affects learning and behaviour right through the school years and in many cases beyond into adulthood.A person with ADHD may sometimes have other disorders such as dyslexia, autism, learning disorder, dyspraxia, conduct disorder, oppositional defiance disorder although not necessarily ADHD would seem to affect more boys then girls
Claire Cashin class notes (2009)
How is it diagnosed?
No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behaviour and environment and then make a diagnosis based on the facts before him or her. . Some paediatricians can assess the child, the referring paediatrician and specialist will determine if a child: Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions Has a middle ear infection that may cause a hearing disorder Has any undetected vision or hearing problems
Has any medical problems that may affect the Childs thinking or behaviour Has any learning disabilities
Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptom Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as a separation or divorce of a parent or maybe a breavemenment A specialist will also consult with child's parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child to get a well balanced physiological; and medial profile of the child. If a child after being evacuated the child meets the criteria for ADHD he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder Claire Cashin class notes (2009)
Recognised or possible symptoms of ADHD
May often be out of their seat
Can’t wait their turn
Doesn’t follow instructions
Makes careless mistakes
Gets involved in and interrupts other children’s work
Gets into trouble constantly in the playground
Is fidgety and restless
Doesn’t finish tasks
Displaying of the symptoms alone cannot lead to diagnosis
Claire Cashin notes (2009)
How to care for
It can be extremely difficult to raise a child with ADHD. One thing that would be of benefit to parents would be to join a support group by doing this it would enable the parents to meet other parents and be able to ask questions and to get emotional support from parents who have gone through the same situations that they may have to deal with. One way of coping with a child with ADHD would be to set goals for the child and if the child is old enough you can evolve them in this process, by doing so it keeps a clear structure and the child will learn to set realistic goals for themselves. A child with ADHD needs a lot of attention, it is no good putting them in front of a TV and saying stay quiet and watch TV a child with ADHD needs stimuli as they are easily distracted and will get very bored with just watching TV. Even though it may seem like an ADHD child has more bad behaviours than good, it is essential that the good are emphasized as much as possible. The more you emphasize the good behaviours your child does, the better their self-concept will be. Focusing on bad behaviour alone can lead to esteem problems in the child with ADHD. So this should be foremost on a parents mind in order to avoid this potential hazard. If a child with ADHD misbehaves it is very important for a parent or a teacher to focus on the behaviour and not the child by doing so you are treating the child with dignity and respect. Yelling at a child with ADHD can be reactive but not constructive Give your child choices for what they can do. Children mimic the behaviour of parents and siblings so if a good example is set the child will learn to mimic this behaviour. It is also good to let a child make decisions for themselves, this is especially the case of a child with ADHD the more choices they will have will make them more independent and learn to develop and lead a rewarding life. http://ezinearticles.com(2009)
The most prevalent type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a "stimulant." Although it may seem bizarre to treat ADHD with a medication considered a stimulant, it actually has a calming effect on children with ADHD. Many types of stimulant medications are available. A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants and work differently than stimulants. For many children, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Medication also may improve physical coordination. ADHD can affect children in many different ways. O child may have side effects on a particulular medication while another may not. It can be a trail and error procedure to ascertain which medication would suit a particular child some children might have to try different before finding one that works for that child, any child taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by caregivers and doctors. Medications come in a vareraity of forms, such as a pill, capsule, liquid, or skin patch. In each of these varieties, the active ingredient is the same, some medications can be long lasting or slow release medications, this can be helpful as a child may be able to take his or her medicine at home, this can be helpful as the child may not have to take frequent visits to a school nurse to administer the medication. Psychotherapy
Varied types of psychotherapy are used for ADHD.
This may comprise of a practical assistance, such as getting help with homework and organising tasks, or helping a child through an emotional difficult event such as bereavement or even a separation or divorce. Behavioural therapy also help a child a child in monitor his or her own behavior.A good example would be giving oneself praise for good behaviour like controlling emotions of anger and not acting out on these emotions but thinking what are the consequences of the child acting impulsively., is another goal of behavioural therapy. Therapists may teach children social skills, such as the sharing of toys and raising their hand if they want to ask a question and not shouting out .http://www.nimh.nih.gov(2009)
Education for People with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act 2004. This provides the statutory requirements for educational planning as they impact upon students, parents, schools, and the National Council for Special Education (the Council). However, with the legislation only recently enacted, much of the detail remains to be finalised (e.g. the format of written plans and reports) and this will be done over time as the Council assumes its powers and responsibilities. Therefore, what follows in this section merely establishes the new context for special education and individual planning; the planning process as it is currently established; and identifies the rights, roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders in that process. The EPSEN Act 2004 provides for the provision of education plans for students with special educational needs (SEN). Under the Act, children with SEN will be educated “in an inclusive environment with children who do not have SEN”, unless this should be inconsistent either with the best interest of the child, or with the effective provision for the other children. Under the EPSEN Act 2004, all children with SEN should be provided with an IEP, and this individualised programme should be delivered in an 'inclusive environment' with students who do not have SEN whenever possible. Before the individual planning process starts, the Act identifies a four step process to confirm a child's SEN. This involves: 1.Identification; the student is identified to the principal as not benefiting from the educational programme being provided in the school. 2.The principal takes in-school "practicable" measures to meet the childs needs. 3.Following these measures, if the child is still not benefiting from the programme being provided, he/she is then assessed. 4. SEN is confirmed with an assessment statement.
Once SEN is confirmed the individual planning process then begins. This involves a cyclical process in which the Planning Team design the child’s individual Plan to meet his/her SEN; the Plan is then carried out during the Implementation stage (<12 months); the Plan is Reviewed; and the results of the Review feed back into a new Plan for the next period http://www.nda.ie(2009)
Impact on learning
A child who has not been diagnosed with the condition may find it very hard to fulfil their true potential in the classroom. If a child is not listening to the teacher or fidgeting a lot and being disruptive they more often than not are sent to the back of the class if this happens a child may not get the proper education they deserve. This is why it is very important that parents and teachers if they think that a child may have symptoms of ADHD they should do all they can to get the child assessed ,If a child then is diagnosed with ADHD he or she will then get the proper care and attention they need in the classroom . Teaching children with ADHD is and won’t be an easy task to achieve for teachers, but all children can benefit from the specific and positive behavioural management and reward strategies that are required by children with ADHD. Understanding ADHD behaviours in the classroom is the first step for a teacher to manage them effectively. Specific written and verbal instructions will need to be given to break tasks down into a manageable sequence of events that any child can follow. A child with ADHD is not deliberately ignoring the instructions of their teacher. Every thought, noise and action turns into a bewildering stream of conflicting and unrelated information that distracts them from the task in hand, so a child with ADHD will notice every small detail of what is going on around them in class. Unlike children without ADHD, they cannot easily focus or distinguish the important information provided by a teacher from the background ‘noise’ of other distractions. Additionally a child with ADHD can find it hard to understand instructions given out and sequence them together. To the untrained eye a child who may have ADHD symptoms but not have been diagnosed might be referred toas a bold child. A child with ADHD needs special treatment such as a SNA. This will help the child to fulfil his full potential and get the same right to education that all children are entitled to.
Seat the child away from windows and doors where he or she may be easily distracted. Seat the child in front of the teacher with the focus on the teacher; this will maintain the Childs concentration on the teacher. Give instructions one at a time ina clear and precise manner, if possible write instructions on the board and ask if all the children understand the instructions the teacher is not putting emphasis on a child with ADHD also if possible work on the most difficult task’s early in the day when a child with ADHD is at his or her most alert At break times it would be good to have to have an SNA as he or she would be able to supervise the child With ADHD in the yard and set out playtime for him or her Create a quite area for the child with ADHD to work so to minimise the distractions. It would also be a good idea to give tests with few items, and also to give quizzes with short answerers rather than long tests. Show the child how to use a ruler to track written words on a page and also reduce the number of timed tests if the child is good at answering questions orally it would be good practice to test the child orally rather than in written form. Accept late work and give partial credit for partial work. Divide long-term projects into segments and assign a completion goal for each segment. Let the student do as much work as possible on computer. Organization
Have the student keep a master notebook, a three-ring binder with a separate section for each subject, and make sure everything that goes into the notebook has holes punched and is put on the rings in the correct section. Provide a three-pocket notebook insert for homework assignments, completed homework, and “mail” to parents (permission slips, PTA flyers).Colour-code materials for each subject. Allow time for the student to organize materials and assignments for home. Teaching Techniques
Teaching techniques that help students with ADD/ADHD focus and maintain their concentration on your lesson and their work can be beneficial to the entire class. Starting a lesson
Signal the beginning of a lesson with an aural cue, as a buzzer, a cowbell or a horn. . (You can use other cues to show much time remains in a lesson.) List the activities of the lesson on the board,
In opening the lesson, tell students what they’re going to learn today and what materials or books they will need Establish eye contact with the student with ADHD
Conducting the lesson
Keep instructions simple and structured.
Have an unobtrusive cue set up with a student with ADHD to remind tem to keep focused such as a tap on the back. Allow a student with ADHD frequent breaks.
Let the student with ADHD squeeze a stress ball or tap something that doesn’t make noise as a noise. Try not to ask a student with ADHD perform a task in the class that they may not be able to do as this may cause the child embarrassment and also his or her fellow classmates Ending the lesson
Summarize key points.
If you give a student with ADHD homework, have three different students repeat it, then have the class say it in unison, and put it on the board. Be specific and tell the student with ADHD what to take home. http://www.addandadhd.co.uk/impact-learning-for-adhd-child.htmlReflections and conclusions A child with ADHD will face tougher challenges in life, no more than in his or her education, but with the right help and assistance the child will learn to develop and hopefully find its place in life and receive the best education he or she can get. This also depends on the school where the child is receiving the education. Having researched this topic it has given me more understanding of the condition and I am looking forward to working as a special needs assistant. Bibliography
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/how-is-adhd-diagnosed.shtml (Accessed 2009) http://ezinearticles.com/?Caring-for-a-Child-with-ADHD---What-do-Parents-Need-to-Know&id=217204 (accessed 2009) http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml(accessed 2009) http://www.nda.ie/cntmgmtnew.nsf/0/A345F22FF11E44C6802570660053BE27(accessed 2009) http://www.addandadhd.co.uk/impact-learning-for-adhd-child.html(accessed 2009)