What exactly does the term ‘additional need’ mean?
The term ‘additional need’ or ‘disability’ refers to an individual who either/or has a physical, cognitive or a sensory impairment. An individual with any form of disability may need or have specific needs in certain settings and environments i.e. School, home or work.
There are many causes as to why a person may have an additional need or disability and they are categorized into the following groups: Genetic, Developmental, environmental.
A condition or disease that is hereditary and is passed from blood relatives of the individual caused by a ‘defective’ or absent gene or chromosome. Examples include; Downs syndrome, dwarfism, and cystic fibrosis.
A disorder that appears in childhood and affects the individual’s rate of development either physical, mental or both. This can include psychological disorders such as autism or dyslexia and physical disorders affecting the person’s fine and gross motor skills.
A disability caused by the environment, for example; if a person has an accident at work or a car crash this may lead to a person’s permanent loss of use of their legs.
Society and disability
The medical model of disability:
The medical model of disability is one of two perspectives with regards to classifying additional needs. The medical model is a clinical, diagnostic way of looking at a person’s physical or mental 'limitations'. Its primary focus is whether or not an individual's additional needs reduce their quality of life or causes them to be at a disadvantage. The medical model definitions, illustrated by The World Health Organizations (WHO's) are as following: “Impairment: any loss or abnormality of psychological or anatomical structure or function Disability: Any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to