Georgia Piedmont Technical College- BIOL2114-Anatomy and Physiology II (60168) Addison’s Disease
The Endocrine Glands
The endocrine glands are the glands of the endocrine system which secret hormones directly into the bloodstream. The endocrine is located in different parts of the body and some important endocrine glands include the pancreas, testes, ovaries, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and the hypothalamus. The adrenal glands are located near the kidneys and their function is to release stress responsive hormones. These hormones include adrenaline and noradrenaline. The adrenaline glands also affect the functioning of the Kidney by the secretion of the hormone aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located bilateral and medial to the Kidneys. The adrenal glands are pyramid like in shape.
The Addison’s Disease
The Addison’s disease is a very rare disorder of the adrenal glands. The disorder affects the production and secretion of the two important hormones aldosterone and cortisol. The disorder causes the adrenal glands to produce insufficient levels of the two hormones. The disease is also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypoadrenalism.
The major symptoms of the disease include nausea, vomiting and chronic diarrhea. Dehydration, weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue may also be experienced.
Causes of the disease include infections like tuberculosis and HIV, tumors, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands, and it can also be caused by an attack to the glands by the immune system itself.
Lab tests may show low blood pressure, increased potassium, low cortisol level and low serum sodium. Additional tests include CT scan and X-ray.
Patients are treated through doses of corticosteroids; in extreme adrenal insufficiency hydrocortisone is injected right away.
Ivy Rose. (2014). Endocrine Glands - Locations, Hormones, and...
References: Ivy Rose. (2014). Endocrine Glands - Locations, Hormones, and the Functions of Those Hormones. Retrieved 21 May 2014, from http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Endocrine/Endocrine_Glands.php
NHS. (2014). Addison 's disease. Retrieved 21 May 2014, from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/addisons-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx
NLM. (2014). Endocrine glands. Retrieved 21 May 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002351.htm
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