As Dunnington states that addiction is defined a number of different ways. Addiction is defined as a “brain disease” personifies by “compulsive use of drugs” this definition comes from the Institute of Medicine (2011). The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines addiction as a “chronic, relapsing, brain disease expressed in the form of compulsive behaviours”. Another more developed definition is from the World Health Organisation “Repeated use of psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user is periodically or chronically intoxicated, shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance or substances, has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, and exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means”. DiClemente states that addiction has expanded to include any substance use or reinforcing behaviour that has a long for nature, has an obsessive and repetitive quality, is self-destructive, and is experienced as challenging to modify or stop (2006). There are also bad and good addictions. Examples of bad addictions include drug and alcohol taking and good addictions include exercise and meditation (DiClemente, 2006).
Addicts do not act on their addiction there are many risks that an addict faces every day for example using the same needle as someone else, participating in risky sexual activity, engaging in theft and criminal activity, putting relationships in danger, and overlooking health outcomes (Ross et al, 2010). According to the National Institution on Drug Abuse there are many more negative consequences for both individuals and for