Topics: Electronic filter, Harmonic series, Timbre Pages: 7 (3140 words) Published: August 7, 2014
Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 7~13, 2011


Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality Factor
Young-Sik Cho* and Hanju Cha†
Abstract - This paper presents how to select tuning factor and quality factor in designing of a single-tuned passive harmonic filter. Tuning factor and quality factor must be considered before a decision of filter parameters(R, L and C). In literature, the study about these two factors has not been performed and only empirical values have been used in the passive harmonic filter design so far. As an empirical value, in cases of 5th and 7th filter, tuning order has been used 4.8th and 6.8th respectively and quality factor has been used in a range of 30 and 60; therefore, we will propose how to decide these two factors in this paper. If a single-tuned passive harmonic filter were offtuned, its performance would be deteriorated substantially and resulted in a parallel resonance between grid inductance and filter capacitance. In order to avoid this side effect from off-tuning, the filter must be tuned on some preceded order not on the exact order. In other words, total filter impedance must have reactive impedance on a tuned frequency. In this paper, tuning factor is derived by using a bode-plot based method and then performance of filter is confirmed as a harmonic current absorption rate which harmonic source flows through filter; and quality factor is also derived by using the same method and then the performance is confirmed by the same filter current absorption rate. Finally, the performance of proposed passive harmonic filter design using the tuning factor and quality factor is verified by experiment. Experimental results show that the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th current harmonic distortions meet IEEE-519 requirement. Keywords: Passive filter, Harmonic, Passive harmonic filter, Tuning factor, Quality factor

1. Introduction
The utility grid voltage is normally assumed to be a pure
sinusoid at a fundamental frequency of 60 Hertz. Applying
a sinusoidal voltage to a linear load produces sinusoidal
current which is also at the same fundamental frequency.
However, applying the sinusoidal voltage to a non-linear
load does not result in a sinusoidal current waveform,
although the current can be identified to be repetitive at the fundamental frequency. Harmonic currents and voltages are
caused by the interaction of non-linear loads with the utility. The traditional approach to solve aforementioned harmonic
problem has been done by the use of passive harmonic
filter[1-3]. Currently, Passive harmonic filter application is used as a common practice and readily available to power
system engineers and designers for reducing harmonic
voltage and current distortion through alternate circuit path operation. Several IEEE transaction papers have been
written and published which introduce the theory and
implementation of advanced techniques for controlling

Corresponding Author: Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Korea (
Dept. of Electricity and Control, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Korea (
Received: May 1, 2010; Accepted: October 16, 2010

harmonic current flow such as magnetic flux compensation,
harmonic current injection, dc ripple injection, series/shunt active filter systems, and pulse width modulated static var
harmonic compensators. However, practical systems have
not been extensively installed and are not available on the
market yet. It may take more time before these advance
techniques are fully developed and readily available for a
successfully competition with Passive harmonic filter
systems. Passive harmonic filters will be installed in the
industry field and applied alone, or in combination with
transformer phase shifting and/or higher pulse number
rectifier configurations to waveform distortion on the power...

References: On Industry Applications, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 10201025, 1991.
Applications, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 983-990, 1990.
Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, pp. 264-273, 2002
Francis, pp. 389-414, 2005
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