Actors in Policy Formulation and Two (2) Actors in Policy Implementation.
QUESTION: EXPLAIN ANY TWO (2) ACTORS IN POLICY FORMULATION AND TWO (2) ACTORS IN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION.
DEFINITION OF POLICY
Public policy defined by Brooks as the broad framework of ideas and values in which decisions are made and action or inaction is pursued by governments in relation to some issues or problems. It means the government has power to come out with certain policy and decision or silent in certain conditions. For example, for the sake of welfare, the government comes out with policy to build low cost housing so that all people can afford to own a house. Another example of inaction by government is in the issue of giving free education. Dye(1972) defined public policy as whatever governments choose to do or not to do.
In order to create a policy, there few steps to be followed. Policy formulation refers to the crafting of alternatives or options for dealing with a problem. It may also be defined as the development of policy alternatives for dealing with problem in the policy agenda. Or in other words, the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the agenda. For example, the policy formulator is concerned with developing a proposed course of action to reduce the number of high school dropouts or lessen the volume of federal paperwork by using electronic medium via email or using recycle or draft paper.
Who are the policy-makers? Policies are made (i.e., they are formulated) by a wide range of players called policy-makers. In most countries, public policy-makers are usually elected officials or their appointees.
Here, there are few groups or actors formulate their proposals on what they believe to be right solution to the problem such as governmental agencies, legislators, interest groups, NGOs, CBOs, the general public, Outside the countries,Specific regional and world blocks, private sector such as banks, Mass media & etc.