One’s approach to project management is tied to the type of organization that you are working in. The forms of organizations can exist as functional, projected or matrix. The structure of the organization will determine your level of project management authority as well as the availability of the resources that you will work with. Organization structure refers to how an organization decides to organize itself in order to operate the business activities. Organization structure is influenced by the culture of the organization. Bro Uttal (1983) coined organization culture as a system of shared values (what is important) and beliefs (how things work) that interact with a company’s people, organization structures, and control systems to produce behavioral norms (the way we do things around here). Andrew Brown (1995, 1998) stated the definition of organizational culture in his book Organizational Culture is as follows: “Organizational culture refers to the pattern of beliefs, values and learned ways of coping with experience that have developed during the course of an organization’s history, and which tend to be manifested in its material arrangements and in the behaviours of its members.” On the other hand, Schien (1985a) sees culture as a set of psychological tendencies that among members of an organization that dictates how they think and act. “invented, discovered or developed beliefs of a group as it learns to solve its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems”. There is little doubt that the culture of the organization will directly impact on the structure of the organization, given that structure is a determinant of organizational culture. Culture plays a crucial role in whether you organization is successful in implementing a project. The need to recognize and manage organization culture as well as cross-culture, is important for the successful execution of a project. Cultural bottlenecks can retard the deliverables when managing project. Bottlenecks are the processes that occur when inputs come at a quicker rate than it can be converted into output. Bottlenecks can be both long term and short term. For example, if data is required from various personnel by the secretary to complete a report. If secretary is hospitalized and is unable to complete the report, this will negatively affect the project manger’s ability to produce the deliverables. However, if the culture of the organization is that more than one project staff has updates and data, and then there is no question that, anyone of them can produce the report (Buono and Bowditch, 1989). Cultural bottleneck can cause major problems for any company, and it is important that the causes are identified and dealt with speedily. Some typical signs of cultural bottlenecks include a backlogging of work because you are awaiting someone, material or paperwork as well as high stress related to a task or a process.
Organization Culture serves two purposes, first, it creates the feeling of identity among personnel that allows a sense of commitment to the organization; and second, it help members to understand fully, the acceptable behaviors and procedures with the organization (Martins, 2000).
Organization structure can be understood as the way that power and responsibilities are assigned in the organization that influence the way work procedures are carried out organization the by organization members (Gerwin & Kolodny, 1992;Ruekert, Walker, & Roering, 1985; Walton, 1985). Additionally, organization structure is defined as “the network of relationships and roles existing throughout the organization”, by Goldhaber et al. (1984, cited in Peng et al, 2012). Organization structure is a determinant of the successful management of a project because...
References: Galbraith Jay R (2009) DESIGNING MATRIX ORGANIZATIONS THAT ACTUALLY WORK
http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9780470374078_sample_410514.pdf(acessed on Thursday 4th Dec, 2014)
Litten, Dave (2014) Organization Structure (Online Article http://www.pm-primer.com/the-pmbok-organization-structure
Tolbert Pamela S (2009), http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article
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