1. REVIEW: Explain how each recent theoretical perspective regards children and adults as active contributors to their own development. (pp. 20–25)
Each theoretical perspective regards children and adults as active contributors to their own development. Information Processing began with the idea that the human mind can act as a manipulating system through which information flows. It is a perspective that demonstrates people that learn from their thinking to solve a problem. It is suggested that younger people use this skill more efficiently than older people. However, it is still believed that children and adults actively tackle many cognitive tasks using this approach. Developmental Psychology refers to the idea that each individual goes through a short period of time in which the individuals are “biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs support of an appropriately stimulating environment”. If one fails to actively go through this short but critical life phase it is suggested that intelligence will be impaired and cannot be retrieved in adult years because the capacity to acquire the knowledge has been reduced. Vigotsky’s Sociocultural Theory suggests that adults learn their culture as they develop and pass this knowledge down to their children. This maintains cultural specific beliefs and practices that allow cultures to continuously maintain a population. Social interaction which is included in this theory suggests that by allowing children and adults to socialize with older generations, the children and adults will have guidance and grow to behave and think similarly to the older generations. The Ecological Systems Theory suggests that environmental forces and a child’s biological dispositions enforce development. The activities and interactions in a person’s immediate surrounds allow a person to develop (Berk, L.E., 2010). 2. REVIEW: Explain the genetic origins of PKU and Down syndrome. Cite evidence that both heredity...
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