acetone

Topics: Water, Acetone, Distillation Pages: 49 (9648 words) Published: December 15, 2014
CHAPTER 1

PRODUCTION 236250 TONNES PER YEAR OF ACETONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Acetone is a clear, colorless, volatile liquid with sweer odor. It is both the simples aliphatic ketone and the most commercially important. It has a distinctive fruity or mint-like odor and a pungent taste. It is also found naturally in plants, tress, volcanic gases, and forest fires and as a by product of the breakdown of body fat. Nearly all world production of acetone is via cumene peroxidation, as a coproduct with phenol. Its main use is as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of acetone cyanohydrin for methyl methacrylate, bisphenol A and aldol chemicals. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propanol can be chosen as an alternative synthetic route when high-purity of acetone is required, such as in biomedical applications. A single pass conversion of 85-92% wuth respect to isopropanol, with reactor conditions of 2bar and 350oC, is generally achieved for this process (Turton et. al, n.d as in Tremoulet, Unton, & Feng, 1998). A molten salt will be used a heat source for the endothermic reaction:

The acetone produced in the reactor passes into a phase separator and then into a separation system that includes one stripping and two distillation column.

1.1The Uses Of Acetone
Acetone is an organic chemical consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. It is a clear, flammable liquid at room temperature. It is produced by humans in small amounts through routine biological processes, but can be harmful in very high concentrations. Generally, acetone causes no serious health problems. Acetone is used in a variety of ways both in science and in everyday life. [1] Most acetone is made during the production of phenol.  Phenol is mostly used to make polymers like plastics; it was also the first antiseptic to be discovered, by Joseph Lister. [2]

1. Solvent

Scientists use acetone as a solvent for many different materials, such as plastics or other man-made, petroleum-based substances. It is capable of breaking down superglue and is used to denature some types of alcohol. The acetone is often used as a solvent for particularly flammable or volatile chemicals, to allow their safe transport and pressurization. It is estimated over 30 percent of all acetone produced goes into use as a solvent for other chemicals.

2. Food and Cosmetics Additive
Acetone is often used as an additive in makeup and some kinds of food. In particular it can be found in bread where it helps to mature and bleach flour. In cosmetics acetone is used to denature certain alcohols in the compounds and can be a component of different mixtures giving the product a specific scent. Although generally considered a safe chemical, acetone may cause skin or eye irritation as a result of the use of these products.

3. Nail Polish Remover
Perhaps the most common use of acetone for most Americans is as the active ingredient in nail polish remover. Acetone's remarkable ability to dissolve many other compounds has made it popular as a paint thinner and a superglue/adhesive remover. It cuts through the chemicals in nail polish, causing it to dissolve and wipe easily off of fingernails. Excessive use of nail polish remover makes nails brittle and weak, so it's important to wash your hands after using it.

4. Fuel Additive
People have begun using acetone as an additive to the gasoline in their cars. The chemical's dissolving power seems to come in handy cleaning off engine buildup, allowing the vehicles to run more smoothly. Proponents of acetone as a fuel additive suggest it increases gas mileage, yields cleaner emissions, and leads to smoother engine function. It has not yet been proven whether or not acetone does in fact have all of these effects.

1.3Market Analysis
1.3.1Introduction
Market study is the a documentative illustrattion that shows the information about the marketplace. It computes the information regarding the moving of...


References: 3. IHS Chemical. (2011, March n.d). Acetone. Retrieved Disember 05, 2013, from Chemical Insight and Forecasting: IHS Chemical: http://www.ihs.com/products/chemical/planning/ceh/acetone.aspx
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5. Tremoulet, M., Unton, M., & Feng, E. (1998, October 11). Production of Acetone Using Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from Owlnet Rice Education: http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~ceng403/gr1998/acetone.html
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7. D. A. Crowl and J. F. Louvar, 2011. Chemical Process Safety: Fundamental with applications. 2nd Ed. USA. Prentice Hall.
8. Legal research Board, 2012. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514), Regulations & Orders. Malaysia. International Law Book Services.
9. James, T. Tweedy, M.S, CHCM, CHSP. (2nd ed.). (2005). Healthcare Hazard Control and Safety Management, 275-301
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