Acetone

Topics: Acetone, Cumene process, Methyl methacrylate Pages: 22 (6726 words) Published: June 22, 2013
INTRODUCTION

Acetone also called 2-propanone or dimelthyl ketone is the organic compound with the formula of (CH3)2CO. Acetone is one of the simplest of the organic compound that called ketones. The figure below showed the chemical structure of acetone:

Figure 1: Chemical structure of Acetone
This chemical is the one of the most important in chemical industry due to their properties. It is a colorless liquid that has a characteristic of sweet odor and used as a nail polish remover. It is a flammable and volatile liquid, easily to evaporate and dissolved in water that can use in many solvent applications. The figure below showed the physical properties of acetone: Physical properties of Acetone|

Properties| Value|
Molecular Weight| 58.079|
Appearance| Colorless liquid|
Specific gravity| 0.7880|
Melting point, °C| -94.6|
Boiling point at 101.3kPa, °C| 56.13|
Density, g/mL | 0.7898|
Refractive index, n20/D| 1.359|
Viscosity at 25°C, cps| 0.3075|
Table 1: Physical properties of Acetone

The acetones are produced more than 5 million tonnes per year, especially in USA, Taiwan and China.

There are many methods to produced acetone; however there are two methods that usually used which are reaction of propylene and benzene to produce cumene which produce phenol and acetone and the dehydration of isopropyl alcohol to produce acetone. According to ICIS, about 90% of productions of acetone are by using cumene process and with each tonnes of phenol can produce 0.62 tonnes of acetone. It also state that the production of acetone via the dehydration of isopropyl alcohol had been declined. The figure below showed the advantages and disadvantages of both process:

Process| Advantages| Disadvantages|
Cumene| * Uses a cheap raw material, benzene and propylene. * Produce two useful products, phenol and acetone.| * High environmental impact. * Use a high-corrosive catalyst. * High capital investment due to their multi step process. (Prasetyoko, May 2011)| Dehydration of isopropyl alcohol| * The catalyst can be regenerated and to neutralize the product. * The acetone is free from benzene (trace aromatic compounds).| * The more feed are required.|

Table 2: Advantages and disadvantages of process for production of Acetone

USAGE

1. As a solvent

As we know, solvent is substances that dissolve in other substance that form a solution. This solvent can be classified into non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. This acetone is an example of polar aprotic solvents. The important property of solvent is boiling point. This is because when some of solvent has a higher boiling point, so it needs a higher temperature and takes a longer time to evaporate. However, it will evaporate fast when a lower boiling point. As we know, acetone has a boiling point of 56.13 °C and it is a most a suitable solvent that had been used. Other properties for a good solvent are able to dissolve between substances, inert to the conditions and can be easily removed in many reactions. Because of their properties such as low toxicity, low boiling and sweet odor, acetone is widely used as a solvent in chemical industry. The figure below showed the advantages of acetone as a solvent:

Advantages| Disadvantages|
Flammable liquid.| Easily contaminated with water. And it may result incomplete dehydration.| Volatile liquid.| Not adsorb to soil strongly.|
Miscible with liquid such as water.| Quickly absorbed by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure.| Low toxicity level.| |
Inexpensive prices.| |
An effective solution as a solvent. | |

Table 3: Advantages and disadvantages of Acetone as a solvent

Acetone is a direct solvent use and used to produce other solvent; methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and methyl isobutyl carbinol (icis, 2007). According to (Stylianos Sifniades, 2011), 182× 103 of acetone are used directly as solvent. However,...

References: (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Iskandar Project Web site: http://www.iskandarproject.com/mission.html
(n.d.)
chemical profile acetone. (2007, November 26). Retrieved from icis: http://www.icis.com/Articles/2007/11/26/9080690/chemical-profile-acetone.html
icis
Business Gov In. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2013, from Business Gov In Web site: http://business.gov.in/starting_business/sourcing_process.php
Frank S
Prasetyoko, M. a. (May 2011). Vanadium Contribution to the Surface . IPTEK, The Journal for Technology and Science, Vol. 22, No. 2.
Stylianos Sifniades, A. B. (2011). Acetone. In Ullmann 's (pp. 258-270).
(n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Iskandar Project Web site: http://www.iskandarproject.com/mission.html
(n.d.)
chemical profile acetone. (2007, November 26). Retrieved from icis: http://www.icis.com/Articles/2007/11/26/9080690/chemical-profile-acetone.html
icis
Business Gov In. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2013, from Business Gov In Web site: http://business.gov.in/starting_business/sourcing_process.php
Frank S
Prasetyoko, M. a. (May 2011). Vanadium Contribution to the Surface . IPTEK, The Journal for Technology and Science, Vol. 22, No. 2.
Stylianos Sifniades, A. B. (2011). Acetone. In Ullmann 's (pp. 258-270).
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