Abstrak Sa Pananaliksik

Pages: 11 (4181 words) Published: March 27, 2011
A learning theory is an attempt to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. Learning theories have two chief values according to Hill (2002). One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. Ang isang pag-aaral ng teorya ay isang pagtatangka upang ilarawan kung paano angmga tao at mga hayop malaman, sa gayon pagtulong sa amin na maunawaan ang mga likas na kumplikadong proseso ng pag-aaral. Learning teorya ay may dalawangpunong halaga ayon sa Hill (2002). Ang isa ay sa pagbibigay sa amin ng bokabularyoat isang haka-haka framework para sa pagbibigay kahulugan sa mga halimbawa ngpag-aaral na obserbahan namin. Ang iba pang ay sa suggesting kung saan sa hitsura para sa mga solusyon sa mga praktikal na problema. Ang teorya ay hindi magbigay sa amin ng mga solusyon, ngunit sila ay direktang ang aming pansin sa mga variable namahalaga sa paghahanap ng mga solusyon.

 Behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. And constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts. Behaviorism ay nakatutok lamang sa mga kapansin-pansin talaga ng aspeto ng pag-aaral. Nagbibigay-malay theories tumingin lampas sa pag-uugali na ipaliwanagutak-based na pag-aaral. At constructivism views aaral bilang isang proseso kung saan ang mag-aaral sa aktibong constructs o gagawa ng bagong ideya o konsepto

Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. F. Skinner. It loosely encompasses the work of people like Edward Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterizes these investigators are their underlying assumptions about the process of learning. In essence, three basic assumptions are held to be true.[original research?] First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning. There are two types of possible conditioning:

1) Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov's Dogs. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat.In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling. 2) Operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’. Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. It is important to note that, a...
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