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Abstract Thesis

By nikab06 Jan 01, 2013 3852 Words
ABSTRACT
Typing has been frequent these days, especially because of our fast changing technology. It is done by everyone, from professionals to students and to anybody who has a computer or similar device. In fact, typing has been essential to work and to assignments, and typing speed had become a major role-player. Mozart Music has already been proven to improve vision, and motor coordination of a person. It is highly controversial and became a topic of debate between some psychologists. The main objective of this study was to test whether background music has an effect on the net speed of typing. Fifteen Volunteers were recruited for this experiment.

The experiment was consisted of three setups, namely: Setup A- No Music, Setup B- Modern Music, and Setup C- Mozart Music. Each setup was composed of three trials. The three setups have similar factors considered except for the background music played during the experiment. Gross Speed, Percentage of Accuracy and Net Speed were measured. The means and the standard deviation were computed. It was found out that both Mozart music and Modern music had improved the net speed of typing. It was concluded that background music have a positive effect and has improved the net speed of typing.

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND
Typing has become a part of our everyday living, may it be for work, or for using social networking sites. The speed of typing has become important, especially in software developing and other careers that include typing. For employees, the speed of typing is important for catching up with tight schedules and deadlines. For students, the speed of typing affects the time of finishing a project. People had always debated about having background music to improve productivity and typing speed. It has always become a topic of encoders. Some say that music is just a distraction, while others find it as a benefit. However, all of these are just personal beliefs; there have been not many researches about the true effect of music on typing speed. People need scientific proof to prove whether music has effect on the speed of accuracy of typing. Based on this, the researchers are encouraged to test whether background music affects the net speed of typing. Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this study was to determine the effect of having background music on the net speed of typing.
Specifically, it attempted to answer the following question: 1. Did having background music affect the net speed of typing?

Assumptions
On this study, the researcher assumed that:
1. The background music did not affect the net speed of typing.

Hypothesis
The following null hypothesis was formulated:
1. The background music did not affect the net speed of typing

Significance of the study
Each year, technology has improved the lives of people. In addition, most jobs today require the use of computers and gadgets. The growing use of technology on work calls out for something to help improve the productivity. A slow, sluggish typist would be more of a burden than a fast and accurate one and fast typing saves more time.

With this study, the debates about whether background music beneficial or not will lessen. It could help students and professionals alike to choose whether to have background music while typing or not.

Through this study, one will be able to consider the beneficial effects of music. Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study has been focusing on the effect background music does to the net speed of typing.
The experiment was conducted in the researchers’ school Bohol Island State University – DOST Computer Laboratory during the school year 2012-2013. Definition of Key Terms
Gross speed. The total speed of which a person types.
Mozart Effect. A term coined by Alfred A. Tomatis for the alleged increase in brain development that occurs in children under age 3 when they listen to the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Music. An art form whose medium are sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Net Speed. It is the speed of a person at which he is hitting the correct keys. Percentage of accuracy. The percentage in which a person is successful in hitting the correct keys while typing. The total speed divided by the number of attempts. Remuneration. A payment or reward for goods or services or for losses sustained or inconvenience caused. Software. A collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. It refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. TypingMaster. It is a professional typing tutor and typing test application that helps to test the typing speed of an individual. WPM. It stands for words per minute; a measure of input or output speed. CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Typing. It is the process of inputting text into a device, such as a typewriter, cell phone, computer, or a calculator, by pressing keys on a keyboard. It can be distinguished from other means of input, such as the use of pointing devices like the computer mouse, and text input via speech recognition.

There are different types of typing, the touch-typing, hunt0and-peck, buffering, and thumbing. Touch-typing refers to the style of typing in which the ‘magic fingers’ and the ‘proper’ typing position is used. Hunt and Peck refers to the style of typing that utilizes only two fingers, it is in which the typist must find and peck each key individually. Buffering is the mix of both styles and thumbing is the style mostly used in mobiles, in which the thumb is being utilized. Different skills are required for typing, these include good vision, fine motor coordination, and a good eye-to-hand coordination.

Mozart effect. This refers to the set of research results that indicate that listening to Mozart’s music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as “spatial-temporal reasoning”.

According to a study from the University of California by neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, and two other researchers, Frances Rauscher and Katherine Ky, listening to Mozart music temporarily increases ones IQ to about 9 points. In the study, they assigned thirty-six Cal-Irvine students to one of three groups, and offered the same “pre-test” to each of the students. One group then listened to a selection by Mozart (Sonata in D major for Two Pianos, K448). A second group listened to what was called a “relaxation tape”, and the third group was subjected to ten minutes of silence. All of the students were given the same test, which was designed to measure spatial IQ. This test is described as mentally unfolding a piece of paper is that has been folded over several times and then cut. The object is to correctly select final unfolded paper shape from the five examples. The students who listened to the Mozart sonata averaged a 9-point increase in IQ as compared to the average of the students who had listened to the relaxation tape or who had experienced silence.

A series of other studies were conducted after the research Rauscher et al conducted. These include the studies conducted at the State University of New York at Albany, University of Canada, and at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania. All of these studies were in support of the phenomenal “Mozart effect”.

Music. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").

The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques and examining the language and notation of music. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, and texture. Broadly, music theory may include any statement, belief, or conception of or about music. People who study these properties are known as music theorists. Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived. Music has many different fundamentals or elements. These are, but are not limited to: pitch, beat or pulse, rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, allocation of voices, timbre or color, expressive qualities (dynamics and articulation), and form or structure.

Promising Music Effects. According to Cindy Zhan, music also help in better perception of mathematics. Studies done mostly in children of young age show that their academic performance increases after a certain period of music education and training. One particular study published in the Journal ‘Nature’ showed that when groups of first graders were given music instruction that emphasized sequential skill development and musical games involving rhythm and pitch, after six months, the students in groups that received traditional music instruction.

On a Neurological Basis, Musical perception is processed in the right hemisphere of the brain, the same hemisphere that performs spatial cogitation and long-term sequencing operations. Juan G. Roederer stated, Musical perception does involve the analysis of spatial excitation patterns along auditory receptor organ.”

Music also helps the human brain to be more focused. According to the research conducted by Rollin McCraty entitled “The Effects of Different Types of Music on Mood, Tension and Mental Clarity”, designer music, or music designed to have a specific effect on the listener increased positive feelings and concentration levels. Another research by Robert Todd Carroll found out that Mozart music improves concentration.

Scientists at Darmouth College stated that the reason for the improved concentration levels and other benefits of music is that the harmonies of music rewire the brain, creating patterns of neural activity at the confluence of emotion and memory that strengthen with each new melody. Music also affects the rostromedial prefrontal cortex, the region that links to short-term memory, long-term memory and emotions. CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY
Equipment
5 Functioning Computers
Functioning Speakers
Cell phone
TypingMaster
Computer Room
Participants
Fifteen students were recruited from Bohol Island State University Main Campus. There were 10 females and 5 males. There were six students from the computer engineering 1-A, six students from the electrical engineering 1-A, and 3 students from mechanical engineering 1-A. Students participated freely and without remuneration. Apparatus

Software
The experiment was conducted inside DOST Computer Room using five of its computers (Desktop Computers running Windows 7 Operating System)
The experimental software was TypingMaster, a typing tutor and test program. This software was already installed in the Computer Lab’s computers. TypingMaster calculates the Gross Speed, Percentage of Accuracy and the Net Speed of each test. It provides its own pieces and the user may add new pieces to type.

Each trial used a different piece. “Astronauts” was used for the first trial, “History of Photography” for the second trial, and “Hubble Space Telescope” for the third trial. Music
The same software was used for all three independent variables: no music, Mozart music, and Modern Music. The Background music for Mozart Music were, “Piano Concerto No. 22 in E flat, K. 482” for the first trial, “Violin Concerto No. 3 in G, K. 216” for the second trial, and “Symphony No. 40 in G minor” for the third trial. The background music for Modern music were “Happily Ever After” by David Choi for the first trial, “Stuck like Glue” by Sugarland for the second trial, and “I know” by Drake Bell for the third trial.

The songs were played on a cell phone plugged into speakers and were listened by the participants.

Procedure
1. Checking of materials and equipments.
All equipments were checked before each testing day to ensure that all equipments are working without problem. 2. Dividing the Volunteers.
The fifteen volunteers were divided into three batches or groups of five. They are all required to enter the Computer Room, one batch at a time. Division of volunteers is done randomly each trial. 3. Giving of instructions

Prior to collecting data, the volunteers were explained of the task, and instructions were given by the researchers. The instructions were to enter a series of text phrases “as quickly and accurately as possible” while music was playing on the background. Data collection began with pressing the start button and ended after two-minutes. The experiment was done in only one day. On the first trial, the sequence was as follows: No music, Mozart music, and modern music. On the second trial, the sequence was Mozart music, Modern music and No music. And on the third day, the sequence was modern music, no music, and Mozart music. The sequence was changed every trial to promote fairness between three setups. 4. Typing

The typing tests were started at the signal given by the researcher. The corresponding background music was played at the start of the test. After two minutes of the first trial, the second trial was started and the corresponding music was played. The same procedure follows for the following trial. 5. Collection and Analyzing of data

The data of each trial were recorded by the software. All results from each setup and each trial were collected by the researchers. CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
Gross Speed, Percentage of Accuracy, and Net Speed Tables for the three setups, namely No Music, Modern Music, Mozart Music. Table 1. The Gross Speed of all Setups and trials
 | SETUP A (NO MUSIC)| SETUP B (MODERN MUSIC)| SETUP C (MOZART MUSIC)| Volunteers| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| A| 38| 26| 30| 46| 29| 25| 41| 24| 32|

B| 23| 26| 29| 28| 30| 30| 21| 30| 36|
C| 26| 30| 25| 31| 30| 28| 29| 28| 29|
D| 26| 30| 23| 32| 29| 22| 31| 30| 24|
E| 27| 38| 31| 34| 36| 25| 34| 34| 31|
F| 19| 35| 29| 29| 43| 28| 27| 43| 32|
G| 21| 27| 28| 28| 33| 27| 22| 28| 30|
H| 40| 30| 20| 20| 32| 32| 49| 25| 38|
I| 37| 25| 38| 38| 24| 34| 40| 19| 38|
J| 28| 35| 42| 42| 42| 53| 34| 41| 50|
K| 29| 29| 35| 35| 25| 25| 32| 32| 31|
L| 36| 30| 27| 27| 31| 31| 33| 35| 33|
M| 30| 22| 25| 25| 29| 23| 34| 23| 23|
N| 30| 32| 33| 33| 21| 32| 26| 30| 33|
O| 27| 33| 30| 30| 35| 44| 33| 25| 42|
AVERAGE| 28.4481| 29.8605| 29.674| 34.08| 31.2062| 30.607| 32.385| 29.826| 33.477| MEAN| 29.32765902| 31.96446418| 31.89598937|

Table 1 shows the tallied results collected from the experiment, the gross speed of typing without music, the gross speed of typing with modern music and the gross speed of typing with Mozart music. The mean of typing without music showed a gross speed of 29.328 wpm. The mean of typing with modern music showed a gross speed of 31.964 wpm. While the mean of typing with Mozart music showed a gross speed of 31.896 wpm. Table 2. The Percentage of Accuracy of all Setups and Trials  | SETUP A (NO MUSIC)| SETUP B (MODERN MUSIC)| SETUP C (MOZART MUSIC)| Volunteers| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| A| 100| 81| 97| 100| 90| 100| 88| 88| 94|

B| 48| 91| 100| 79| 90| 97| 100| 93| 100|
C| 70| 97| 97| 81| 90| 93| 72| 93| 93|
D| 51| 93| 91| 87| 93| 69| 97| 97| 96|
E| 85| 84| 97| 91| 92| 100| 100| 85| 100|
F| 90| 91| 90| 100| 88| 100| 100| 89| 97|
G| 38| 94| 93| 15| 85| 100| 36| 100| 97|
H| 91| 97| 100| 87| 85| 91| 82| 80| 87|
I| 78| 95| 92| 98| 88| 89| 90| 80| 100|
J| 90| 100| 92| 94| 95| 73| 97| 95| 92|
K| 83| 96| 92| 97| 97| 92| 94| 93| 93|
L| 80| 100| 100| 97| 97| 84| 88| 97| 97|
M| 97| 64| 84| 94| 62| 87| 91| 56| 69|
N| 75| 65| 85| 69| 97| 94| 89| 93| 88|
O| 93| 86| 100| 100| 75| 89| 94| 85| 98|
AVERAGE| 77.933| 88.933| 94| 85.933| 88.267| 90.533| 87.867| 88.267| 93.4| MEAN| 86.95555556| 88.24444444| 89.84444444|

Table 2 shows the tallied results collected from the experiment, the percentage of accuracy of typing without music, the percentage of accuracy of typing with Modern music, and the percentage of accuracy of typing with Mozart music. The mean of typing without music showed a percentage of 86.96%. The mean of typing with Modern music showed a percentage of 88.24%. The mean of typing with Mozart music showed a percentage of 89.84%. Table 3. The Net Speed of all setups and trials.

| SETUP A (NO MUSIC)| SETUP B (MODERN MUSIC)| SETUP C (MOZART MUSIC)| Volunteers| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| A| 38| 21| 29| 46| 26| 25| 36| 21| 30|

B| 11| 24| 29| 22| 27| 29| 21| 28| 36|
C| 18| 29| 24| 25| 27| 26| 21| 26| 27|
D| 13| 28| 21| 28| 27| 15| 30| 29| 23|
E| 23| 32| 30| 31| 33| 25| 34| 29| 331|
F| 17| 32| 26| 29| 38| 28| 27| 38| 31|
G| 8| 25| 26| 3| 28| 27| 8| 28| 29|
H| 36| 29| 20| 46| 23| 29| 40| 20| 33|
I| 29| 23| 35| 40| 21| 30| 36| 15| 38|
J| 25| 35| 39| 31| 40| 39| 33| 39| 46|
K| 24| 28| 32| 35| 24| 23| 30| 30| 29|
L| 29| 30| 27| 337| 30| 26| 29| 34| 32|
M| 29| 14| 21| 30| 18| 20| 31| 13| 16|
N| 15| 21| 28| 18| 20| 30| 23| 28| 29|
O| 25| 28| 28| 32| 26| 39| 31| 21| 41|
AVERAGE| 22.667| 26.6| 30| 30.2| 27.2| 27.4| 28.667| 26.6| 31.4| MEAN| 25.68888889| 28.26666667| 28.88888889|

Table 3 shows the tallied results collected from the experiment, the net speed of typing without music, the net speed of typing with modern music, and the net speed of typing with Mozart music. The table also shows the average net speeds of each trial and setup. In setup A, trial 1 showed a net speed of 22.7 wpm, trial 2 showed 22.6 and trial 3 showed 27.8 wpm. In setup B, trial 1 showed a net speed of 30.2 wpm, trial 2 showed 27.2 wpm, and trial 2 showed 27.4 wpm. Setup C, trial 1 showed a net speed of 28.7 wpm, trial 2 showed 26.6 wpm, and trial 3 showed 31.4 wpm.

Mozart music, compared to No music, have improved typing net speed by 3.2 wpm. Modern music, on the other hand has improved net speed by 2.6 wpm. Discussions
The net speed mean of setup B, was proven to be higher than that of setup C. the net speed mean of setup C was proven to be higher than that of Setup A. based on the results shown above, background music improves the net speed of typing. Typing with Mozart or Modern Music is more effective and faster compared to typing without background music.

The increase of net speed was attributed to the rewiring of the brain by music and the activation of some regions of the brain, like the rostromedial prefrontal cortex, and the auditory cortex, that has improved the concentration levels, the vision and the motor coordination of the listener.

Since music improves concentration levels, vision and motor coordination, the researcher can safely say that music can also improve the net speed of typing. CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of having background music on the net speed of typing.
Specifically, it attempted to answer the following question: 1. Does having background music affect the net speed of typing?

The researchers formulated the following hypothesis:

1. Having background music cannot affect the net speed of typing.

The results show that there is a certain effect of having background music in the net speed of typing. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore, it was concluded that background music have a significant positive effect and improved the net speed of typing. Recommendations

The researchers recommend that further studies be made that would determine if both genres(Mozart and Modern) has significant difference in increasing the net speed of typing. Furthermore, the researchers also recommend other genres of music in determining the best music genre as background music.

The researchers also recommend that the choice of volunteers be controlled by age brackets and genders. This is to observe the individual effects of music on each age bracket or gender whether it has the same or different effect and on which age bracket or gender is mostly affected by music. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Roederer, Juan G. 1994. The Physics and Psychophysics of Music.Springer-Verlag 1995.pp 13 & 53. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL and Ky KN. 1993. Music and Spatial Task Performance.Nature 1993.pp 365-611. Rauscher, F., Shaw G. and Ky, K. 1995. Listening to Mozart Enhances Spatial-temporal Reasoning: Towards a Neurophysiological Basis. Neuroscience Letters, Vol: 185, Issue 1, February 6, 1995. pp 44-47. McCraty, R. 2005. The Effects of Different Types of Music in Mood, Tension, and mental Clarity. Pub Med. September 7, 2005. pp 75-84.

WEBLIOGRAPHY
Lerch, Donna. 2000. The Mozart Effect: A Closer Look.
University of Illonois, Doctor Thomas Anderson, UIUC Spring 2000.
Retrieved from:
http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/lerchl/edpsy/mozart_effect.html

Zhan, Cindy. 2008. The Correlation Between Music and Math: a Neurobiology Perspective. Serendip, Biology 202, 2002 First Paper.
Retrieved from:
http://yorku.academia.edu/PelinGul/Papers/240545/The_Effects_of_Background_Music_Type_on_Text_Entry_Performance

Dave Johnson. 2010. Music at work: 3 Real Productivity Benefits.
CBS News.
Retrieved from:
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301505143_162-28648254/music-at-work-3-real-productivity-benefits/?tag=bnetdomain

Carroll, Robert Todd. 2005. Mozart Effect.
The Skeptic’s Dictionary.
Retrieved from:
http://skepdic.com/mozart.html

Celine Roque. 2010. Can Listening to Music Boost Productivity?
GigaOM.
Retrieved from:
http://gigaom.com/collaboration/can-listening-to-music-boost-your-productivity/

Hotz, Robert Lee. 2002. Music changes links in Brain.
Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved from:
http://www.eupsychia.com/perspectives/articles/musicbrain.html

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