Absenteeism has long been considered a significant and pervasive problem in industry. As a result, theories have been developed and numerous studies conducted to identify the causes of absenteeism. Probably one of the most common theories is the notion that absenteeism is caused by employees avoiding a painful or dissatisfying work situation. By the same token, this hedonistic theory would predict that employees who find their job more challenging, more interesting, or more pleasurable in other ways will be absent less often than employees who find their work less pleasurable. Although it is recognized that absenteeism may be caused by the employee's inability to come to work, motivation to attend work is assumed to be a major factor determining how often an employee is absent. To many in the world of work, absenteeism is one of those stubborn problems for which there is no clear culprit and no easy cure
(Rhodes & Steers, 1990, p. 1)
Unscheduled absences affect almost every type of organization. It had been describe that absenteeism as a “subject to be studied, matter to be thought over and a problem to be solved.” Besides the direct costs associated with absenteeism, there are also indirect costs such as hiring of casual staff, reduced productivity, turnover and potential loss in revenue further notes that the indirect costs of absenteeism can be up to three times higher than the direct costs of absenteeism. It therefore becomes vital that organization recognize the extent of this problem due to the high costs associated with continued unscheduled absences.
(Hoque and Islam )(2003, p. 81)
(Cole, 2002; Mason & Griffin, 2003). Robinson (2002)
This has implications for organization because it is difficult for an organization to operate smoothly if employees fail to report for work. However, the issue of absenteeism is a multifaceted one and a phenomenon