Many people believe that abortion is an immoral act. Is that the case for all abortions? For minors, there are some state laws that protect their privacy and allow the minors to have an abortion. However, there are some states that have the law called, the parental involvement law, whereby one or both parents have to consent to the minor having an abortion. There are several psychological and emotional consequences to having an abortion. Abortions can also cause fertility problems. For some couples, intimacy may play a bigger part in their sexual activity then the possibility of becoming pregnant, and therefore, unplanned pregnancies happen, which can lead to abortions. Methodology
I wanted to find reliable sources which would clarify the topic I wanted to cover—abortion. Therefore, I chose to use the University of Phoenix library since it accommodates the second largest online database. Introduction
Abortion. For many people, abortion is immoral—it is the taking of a human life. Is there ever an exception to abortion being immoral—rape, unwanted pregnancy. There are several reasons why someone would consider abortion, but there are many reasons and alternatives not to. Evidence and Analysis
There have been rulings by the Supreme Court that minors do have a fundamental constitutional right to privacy. Under those rulings, minors would be able to make their own decisions about having an abortion without parental consent, unless the state in which that minor lives has enacted a specific law requiring parent notification or consent. However, on January 1, 2000, Texas enforced a law requiring physicians to contact parents of a minor wanting to have an abortion at least 48 hours prior to the procedure. Idaho was the first state to pass this law, parental involvement law, in 1987, and as recent as 1999, Florida was the latest state to pass the law. According to the New England Journal of Medicine (2006), 35 states enforce the laws of parental involvement. Now under review by the federal legislation is the law that would limit a minor’s access to abortions without their parents’ involvement. The parental involvement has been extended not only to the state in which the minor lives, but also in the state in which the minor is seeking the abortion. This has been created by The Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act, which was recently passed by the U.S. House of Representatives.
Does being raped justify having an abortion? According to Barbara Hernandez, a rape victim, who is a devout Catholic and once believed abortion was murder, now believes that it is a woman’s choice which is determined by the circumstances. Monica Terwilliger, a counselor for the Westside Crisis Pregnancy Center, suggests that woman should reflect on why they are contemplating having an abortion and the consequences that may arise before they actually go through the procedure. Although the procedure for having an abortion is quick, many people believe that, no matter what the age, it will have more of a psychological and emotional effect on a woman then perhaps a medical option. These psychological and emotional effects include, but are not limited to, nightmares, regret, depression, anxiety, drug or alcohol dependency, or suicide. These effects are higher for women who have had an abortion than those who have not. Having an abortion can also cause women to become permanently infertile or even almost bled to death.
Studies have been done, and it has been reported, that when a couple is having intercourse, often the use of contraceptives is dependent on the ambivalent pleasures of becoming pregnant, even though a child is not desired at that time. Both men and women will fantasize about what it would be like to conceive a child or “create” a human life with their significant other. When participants thought about not using protection and the possibility of becoming pregnant, they experienced an increase in sexual arousal. However, when the women become pregnant, they seem shocked and horrified, and often resort to having an abortion.
Physical and emotional intimacy often has more value to partners then avoiding diseases and pregnancies. Abortion clinics have noted that the women often stated that would temporarily relinquish to the flight of the imagination of a pregnancy.
In a study of 49 pregnancies, 28 were unintended. There were more unintended pregnancies in women who were less socially advantaged, then those of the socially advantaged. Many women from resource-poor areas are generally less educated and have fewer professional opportunities and are dependent on men will accept becoming and being pregnant in hopes of making their relationship better and try to break away from the hardships of their lives. Even men, who are less educated or from a poorer class, will fantasize about impregnating a women who is in the upper class. Both men and woman believe that they can fulfill emotional and social needs, the need to feel needed and wanted, and their sexual needs with their partner when no contraceptives are used. Although, it has been reported that educated bachelors have higher abortion rates theoretically for a couple of reasons: being educated, they may have better job opportunities higher income levels, which would allow them the affordability to pay for abortions
Conclusions and Recommendations
The abortion rate and unwanted pregnancies are elevated more than they should be. Given that the Federal Welfare Reform Law, The Personal Response, and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act provided $50 million to various states for the education of abstinence, why is there not more educational information be given to men and women (even at early ages)? In doing so, it might help prevent unwanted pregnancies and reduce the abortion rate. The information that is given should also teach people to use contraceptives correctly and how to plan for a family when partners may actually want and be ready for one.
Hernandez, B. (1997). Rape justifies abortion. Opposing Viewpoints: Abortion. T.L. Roleff (Ed.). San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from Gale Library. Johnston, W.R. (4 June 2008). Historical abortions statistics: United States, Johnston’s Archive. http://www.johnstonarchive.net/policy/abortion/ab-unitedstates.html. Johnston, W.R. (2000). Almanac of Policy Issues. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from http://www.policyalmanac.org/culture/archive/abortion_statistics.shtml Terwilliger, M. (2001). Some reasons to decide against abortion. Teen decisions: Pregnancy. W. Dudley (Ed.), San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from Gale Library. That Terrible Night. My Choice, God's Grace: Christian Women Tell Their Stories. A. Eggebroten (Ed.) The physical and mental consequences of abortion on women's health. Catholic Insight. (October 2008). 19(2). General OneFile. Retrieved February 8, 2009, from Gale Library.