Abnormal Psychology Notes

Topics: Aggression, Discrimination, Racism Pages: 24 (5112 words) Published: October 10, 2013

Working With Attitudes-Towards-Self

1. Conceptualizing Personal and Social Aspects of Identity (Harre & Lamb)

Self-awareness: The capacity to think in terms of one’s self-concept; to objectively reflect upon one’s characteristics and to know oneself.

Self-concept: characteristics of the self as perceived by an individual, being the product of inferences drawn from personal experience, reflection on
that experience and awareness of the views of others of that individual. just as individuals are able to perceive, learn about, form concepts of, have memories of, and acquire emotional reactions to knowable objects in the world, so they also operate similarly with respect to self-as-an-object.

Self-esteem: The evaluation that an individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to him/herself. Global vs multi faceted

Self-schema: A cognitive generalisation about the self, derived from past experience, that organises and guides the processing of self-related information.

An Extra:
Self Efficacy: An individual’s assessment of their ability to perform a task, attain a goal or to overcome obstacles and solve problems


Attitudes are summary evaluations of knowable objects, and that they involve a combination of beliefs about and feelings towards objects, acquired through direct or indirect experience of those objects We can acquire attitudes towards issues, things, other people, oneself overall, or to a range of different facets of oneself. Attitudes-towards-self-as-object = we acquire self-referent attitudes as we relate to our environment and other persons, these attitudes subsequently play a role in influencing our thinking and actions. Specific self-evaluations entail judgments about what are seen to be desirable or undesirable personal qualities - how one “ought to be” according to some set of values. John Maze- All attitudes are essentially moral statements and should be distinguished from factual statements

Negative and Positive Self-Schemata

Involve making a self-referent general moral judgment
The attitudes clustering to form a negative self-schema are essentially significant interconnected moral judgments assessed by an individual on the basis of a valued set of criteria may not have objective validity

Low self-esteem is often associated with experiences of:
Disturbances of attachment in childhood
Punished as a child by love-withdrawal techniques
Involve learning to respond to a rigid and authoritarian view of what is perceived to be wrong, undesirable and unworthy, accompanied by insecurity, fear of punishment, and fear of love withdrawal.

2. Clarifying and extending relevant concepts
Self as Process and Self as Object

An individual is able to acquire attitudes to knowable objects in their world of experience, including self-as-an-object in that world. Awareness extends to self- awareness. These attitudes consist of self-referent beliefs and emotions that combine to influence self-expressive behaviours. Self-concept as multi-faceted

An individual acquires attitudes to different aspects of self-as-an-object, and these form a complex multi-faceted self-concept. ALLPORT’S PROPRIUM:

1. Sense of body – awareness of bodily sensations and physical attributes 2. Sense of continuing self-identity – stable awareness of identity associated with naming and labelling which strengthens self as a reference-point 3. Sense of pride – awareness of strengths or self-evaluation 4. Sense of extension of self – awareness of “one’s things” and sense of belonging to, and being in close relationship with other persons 5. Self-image – awareness of how we present to and are seen by others 6. Sense of self-as-rational-coper – awareness of aptitudes and intellectual resources for problem solving and dealing with the world 7. Sense of propriate striving – awareness of goals and direction regarding valued objectives Self-esteem as multi-dimensional...
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