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Abnormal Psych
1. What are the 3 main challenges to studying abnormal psychology that we discussed in class? List the 3 challenges and describe why they are important to consider. (4 points)
Avoiding stigma, objectivity, and preconceived notions
2. What are 4 criteria used to define abnormal behavior? Define each criterion and give an example.
(4 points)
4 D’s
Dysfunction
Distress
Disability
Deviance
3. Describe the diathesis stress model. Give an example of a diathesis and a stress and how they might result in a mental disorder. (4 points)
Diathesis stress model – genetic vulnerability to a disorder
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature – biological -> stress (the environment)
Diathesis – underlying predisposition, increases one’s risk of developing disorder
Stress – Environmental events, may occur at any point after conception
With the biological, social and psychological triggers from both diathesis and stress = a disorder
4. What is the biopsychosocial model? Describe each component and give examples. Explain how each example you use might contribute to a mental disorder. (6 points)
Biopsychosocial model integrates 3 different components
Something that falls under the biological, psychological, and social environments
5. What are the 5 axes of the DSM-IV? Describe each Axis and then give an example Diagnosis (using each Axis). (6 points)
Axis 1 – Principal disorder – people who need attention (ex: depression, bipolar)
Axis 2 – Personality disorder _ that may be shaping the current response to the Axis I problem
Axis 3 – Medical – medical or neurological problems that may be relevant to the indiciduals current past psychiatric problems e.g.,
Axis 5 – Global assessment functioning (the number from 0-100 based on their functioning)
6. A researcher wants to evaluate the effectiveness of behavior therapy for children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Describe an experiment to evaluate this treatment and indicate the experimental and control groups and the independent and dependent variables. Describe how you would assign children to the experimental and control groups and how you could evaluate the experimental effect. (6 points)
When designing the experiment you will look at how your getting your samples, how it will be more effective, the variables, how you are going to assign people into groups (random assignment)
7. How would you go about assessing and diagnosing a possible psychological disorder with a high school student who has quit attending school? Name 6 different types of assessment you could use and give examples of each. (6 points)
Different types of assessments – behavioral (behavioral monitoring), biological (some sort of brain imaging to see if there is a biological impairment), psychological (self report), clinical interview (structured or unstructured interview; family interview), Cognitive assessment (ink blots; IQ tests), personality test

Multiple Choice Questions (80 points total, 2 points per question)

Make sure you can define and apply the following terms:

Term Definition
Chapter 1
Stigma Destructive beliefs and attitudes ascribed to groups that are considered different (Self-stigma [when a person has an mental illness and starts to discriminate harmful beliefs about themselves], Cultural stigma, Social stigma, and Family stigma [where it is less or more acceptable])
Eugenics Promotion of enforced sterilization to eliminate undesirable characteristics from the population. Many state laws required mentally ill to be sterilized
Psychoanalytic Theory Human behavior determined by unconscious forces. Psychopathology results from conflicts among these unconscious forces.
Id Unconscious, pleasure principle (Immediate gratification)
Ego Primarily conscious, reality principle (Attempt to satisfy ID’s demands within reality’s constraints
Superego The conscience, develops as we incorporate parental and society values
Defense Mechanisms Strategies develops by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse. E.g., repression – pushing impulses of the id out of awareness.
Free Association Psychoanalytic technique where the person speaks freely
Transference and Countertransference Another psychoanalytic technique
Interpretation A psychoanalytic technique which represents itself through interpretation
Behavioral Theory How behaviors are learned through experiences in the environment (Rejects claims that unconscious conflicts drive human behavior).
Classical Conditioning Pavlov
Operant Conditioning Skinner
Positive Reinforcement Behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthened
Negative Reinforcement Behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened
Modeling Learning by watching and imitating others’ behavior (Can occur without reinforcement)
Cognitive Theory Beck – Emphasize how people think about themselves and their experiences can be a major determinant of psychopathology, focus on understanding maladaptive thoughts, and change cognitions to change feelings and behaviors
Humanistic Theory Focus on the person behind the behaviors and the cognitions, self actualization, client-centered treatment
Chapter 2
Biopsychosocial Model 3 dimensions interact to produce psychological problems (Biological -> psychological-> sociocultural => symptoms)
Genotype Genetic material inherited by an individual, unobservable
Phenotype Expressed genetic material, observable behavior and characteristics, depends on the interaction of the genotype and environment
Heritability Extent to which variability in behavior is due to genetic factors (Heritability estimate ranges from 0.00 to 1.00, group, rather than individual indicator)
HPA Axis Involved in stress, Adrenal cortex triggers release of cortisol, the stress hormone (Takes 20-40 minutes for cortisol to peak, takes up to 1 hour for cortisol level to return to baseline)
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that allow neurons to send a signal across the synapse to another neuron
Brain Plasticity Regions of the brain can be taught to do different tasks if needed, if one area has a dysfunction or damage, another one can take over that role (Ex: Stroke [lost speech or motor ability])
Agonist Drugs Stimulate neurotransmitter receptor sites
Antagoist Drugs Dampen neurotransmitter receptor sites
Reuptake Reabsorption of leftover neurotransmitter by presynaptic neuron
Neuron Cells of the nervous system
Cognitive restructuring Change a pattern of thinking, changes in thinking can change feelings, behaviors, and symptoms
Functional Analysis
Sociocultural paradigm Emphasize the ways that individuals are influence by people, social institutions, and social forces. (Gender, race, culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; may increase vulnerability to psychopathology; some disorder specific to certain cultures)
Treatment (Family therapy, group therapy, political action, and multicultural or feminist approaches
Chapter 3
Reliability (test-retest, internal, inter-rater) Consistency of test scores
Test-retest – same scores on different days
Internal consistency – how much items correlate with each other
Inter-rater – 2 or more raters make the same ratings
Validity(content, concurrent, predictive) Measures what it intends to measure
Content – reflects the body of information
Concurrent – correlates with other similar measures
Predictive – test scores relate to a benchmark in the future
Structured versus unstructured clinical interviews Structured is where the client asks the same questions to the same patients where as the unstructured interview is more free talking and questions to the same patients
Objective versus projective tests Objective – same items and response choices for everyone
Projective – people individually project meaning to ambiguous stimuli
The DSM Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
Comorbidity Having one or more of the other disorders/symptoms
Chapter 4
Case Study Detailed biographical description of an individual, usefulness, limitations
Correlation Do variable X and variable Y vary together? Variables measured but not manipulated, cannot determine cause or effect
Experiment Provides information about causal relationships, Involves: (random assignment, independent variable, dependent variable), can evaluate treatment effectiveness (experimental effect
External validity How confident you can be in your results and presenting it to other people
Statistical versus Clinical Significance Statistical – probability =< .05, can be influenced by number of participants (larger samples increase likelihood of significance)
Clinical – Is the association meaningful as well as statistically significant?
Chapter 16
Criminal Commitment A procedure that confines a person to a mental hospital either for; Determination of competency, after acquittal by reason of insanity
Deinstitutionalization
Transinstitutionalization Many mentally ill end up in nursing homes, hospitals and prisons; police officers increasingly called on to work with mentally ill
Affective Violence Crimes of passion, where it’s not premeditated or planned
Targeted Violence Crimes that are planned and meditated (Shooting at Virginia Tech)
Threat Assessment Prevention is possible, violence is a dynamic process, targeted violence is a result of 4 factors: STEP, assess behaviors, not profiles, cooperating and reporting, safety is primary focus

Names to Know:

Marcia Linehan, Francis Galton, Sigmund Freud, Anna O., Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, John Watson, Aaron Beck

Marcia Linehan – Came out about her own mental illness to reduce stigma

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