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THE EFFECT OF BROADCAST MEDIA ADVERTISING
ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN CELLULAR INDUSTRY

Title:
THE EFFECT OF BROADCAST MEDIA ADVERTISING
ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN CELLULAR INDUSTRY
Submitted to:
MR: MUHAMMAD AMJAD
Submitted By:
GOVINDA KUMAR 09-2624) Submission Date: 05 MAY, 2011

1.LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

TO: MR: MUHAMMAD AMJAD
FROM: GOVINDA KUMAR MANWANI DATE: MAY 02, 2011
SUBJECT: Report on “Research On Mobile SIMs”
All praises and thanks are for Almighty ALLAH Who is the source of all knowledge and wisdom endowed to mankind and to the humanity as a whole.
Behind every project is a vision and in order to complete a successful project we must have a determination to complete that vision. We would like to say the words of appreciation to our course instructor Mr. MUHAMMAD AMJAD for motivating us for going towards that vision and his abilities to turn that vision into reality.
The encouragement and assistance of our parents and friends are gratefully acknowledged. We are extremely indebted to the individuals who supplied us with ample help, guidance and information without which this report would never have been completed. We regret if we have forgotten to mention anyone concerned.

Regards,
GOVINDA KUMAR (09-2624)

Table of Contents

2. Executive summary
The topic of our research report is “Research on Mobile Sims of Pakistan”. It is a very vast topic but in this report we have particularly focused behavior of the consumers regarding selection and usage of their particular cellular service providers. The population in our report is taken from FAST National University and Muhammad Ali Jinnah University. Our sample size in this report is 30. Our independent variables are our current cellular service providers who affect the dependent variable i.e. consumer behavior. Moderating variables are price and core consumer services for example packages, network coverage, call centers etc. Method of research used in this research is questionnaires. 15 questionnaires were taken from each institute.
The result shows that 50 %consumers use Ufone, 29% Telenor, 13.3% Warid 23.3%& Mobilink 10% and 3.3% Zong. Features which consumers take into account in order to select a particular cellular service provider are the package offering, competitive pricing, services, reception etc. we also noticed that consumers have a consistent behavior they are not likely to switch from their current cellular service provider. Advertisement does not have any strong effect on consumer behavior only 13.3% of consumers are tending to change their perception due to advertisement.

3.BUSINESS PROBLEM
There are total five mobile SIM companies operating in Pakistan. Research on mobile SIM is a very vast topic and we are particularly focusing on the behavior of mobile SIM users to see which mobile SIM is popular and why it is being used amongst the majority.
4.PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING
4.1 BACKGROUND
Worldwide, countries have seen a boom in the wireless market over the last few years. “Wireless phones once a luxury of the high-powered business-elite, have invaded every space of our lives. The checker at the grocery store uses one” (Ellis, 1999, p. 93). This increase in demand has led to increased competition in the cellular industry. For example, Pakistan currently has five or more service providers competing for market share. The increased competition has resulted in more choices and better value for the consumers as companies try to lure clients through competitive plans and equipment pricing. Motivated by a need for mobility and lowered costs of owning a cell phone, a growing trend amongst consumers is to use their cell phones as their primary phone. In spite of its gaining popularity, the cellular industry appears to have its market share of problems such as dropped calls, billing errors, and a multitude of calling plans which make this service very challenging for consumers, resulting in dissatisfaction and possible switching behavior.
When mobile cellular services were launched in the country the people responded chaotically. These services commenced in the 1990s when Government of Pakistan awarded two cellular Mobile Telephone Licenses to M/s Paktel and M/s Pak Com (Instaphone) for provision of cellular mobile telephone in Pakistan. Both of these companies established their CMT networks using Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). Third cellular license was issued in 1992 by the Ministry of Communication to M/s Pakistan Mobile Communications Limited (PMCL) “Mobilink”. Mobilink established Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) network. In order to meet the increased demand for cellular phone, PTA issued license to M/s Pakistan Telecommunication Mobile Limited (Ufone) for provision of GSM service in 2001. The year 2001 proved remarkable as far the growth in cellular subscriber base was concerned.
In 2004 mobile licenses to two new companies i.e. Warid and Telenor were awarded through open bidding against auction bidding price of US$291 million each. As per new mobile policy these licenses were kept technology neutral so that operators could decide best possible option. The introduction of these two mobile operators gave a tremendous boost to the mobile phone subscriber base in Pakistan which increased by phenomenal 182%. Pakistan mobile industry at the moment is experiencing growth explosion. At present there are six cellular operators providing 29.6 Million mobile connections. Though the existing players are trying to meet the growing demand still there is a huge amount of unmet demand in the under and un-served parts of the country.
The biggest challenge faced by this industry is churn, process of leaving one cellular provider for another. These costs arise from account set-up, credit checks, advertising & promotional campaigns, and operational costs incurred while the provider creates a database of a new consumer’s profile. Thus, it’s critical for a service provider to maintain a continuing relationship within an existing customer because the marginal income from such a customer varies directly with the length of the business relationship (Gerpott, Rams, and Schindler, 2001, p. 250). As a result, with time the incremental cost incurred in maintaining an existing customer reduces, leading to a more profitable business for the service provider in the long run.
5. Industry overview
Consumers’ trend towards adopting cell phones for business or personal reasons has resulted in a penetration rate of over a 100% in some countries.
The telecommunication plays a vital role in development of a country. It provides the prime services that an economy needs for rapid growth, development and modernization. As the economy grows, demand for telecom services increases to conduct the increased number of economic transactions in the expanded economy. Improved efficiency of this sector generates economy-wide benefits as telecommunications are a vital intermediate input and is also crucial to the dissemination and diffusion of knowledge—the spread of the internet and the dynamism that it has lent to economies around the world is testimony to the importance of telecommunications services. The telecommunication sector in Pakistan has done remarkably well in the past few years primarily due to trade and investment liberalization, privatization and openness to modern technology. The different service providers operating in Pakistan are discussed below:
5.1Mobilink
Pakistan Mobile Communications Limited, better known as Mobilink GSM, is a telecommunication service provider in Pakistan. According to PTA statistics, Mobilink has 29.55 million customers by July 2009. Mobilink is the largest cellular service provider in Pakistan. Mobilink's corporate postpaid package is sold under the brand name "Indigo" and prepaid by the name of "Jazz".
In addition to cellular service, the Orascomm group is diversifying its service portfolio by setting up new businesses and also expanding through acquisitions. Recently, they started offering DSL broadband through a wholly owned subsidiary, Link.Net. Company is in place for launch of wireless broadband service through WiMax based technology.

5.2 Ufone
Ufone GSM is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider. It is one of six GSM Mobile companies in Pakistan and is a subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company. It has a subscriber base of 20.05 million as of July 2009.
Since its inception, Ufone has focused on the people of Pakistan, empowering them with the most relevant communication modes and services that enable them to do a lot more than just talk, at a price that suits them the most. Along with the claim of lowest call rates, clear sound and best network, Ufone offers its customers simplified tariffs with no hidden charges. With a strong and uniquely humorous communication direction that has now become Ufone’s signature across all advertising media, Ufone gives its customers many reasons to smile.
5.3Telenor
Telenor Pakistan is a wholly owned subsidiary that started operations on the 15th of March 2005 and holds one of six mobile licenses in Pakistan. It's also the fastest growing cellular network of Pakistan - this may be attributed to their aggressive marketing and advertising campaign. Currently, Telenor holds the second largest GSM and the largest GPRS and EDGE coverage in Pakistan which competes with Ufone. With the recent launch of its nationwide EDGE-enabled network. It has achieved the third largest retailer network in Pakistan within the 2 years span of its operations and has started operations in northern areas of Pakistan and in Pakistani administered Kashmir. Telenor had reached its breakeven in the first quarter of 2007. Telenor proactively participated in the earthquake disaster relief, and carried out a campaign for the welfare of flood victims in Baluchistan.
5.4Warid
In 2004, Warid Telecom International LLC, purchased a license for operating a nationwide mobile telephony network, (WLL) and long distance international (LDI) for $291 million US dollars and was the first venture of Warid Telecom International LLC. Warid Pakistan launched its services in May 2005. Within 80 days of launch Warid Pakistan claims to have attracted more than 1 million users. According to Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, currently Warid Telecom has 18.14 million subscribers as of July 2009. It is ranked as the fourth largest operator in Pakistan. Warid Pakistan claims it has the largest "post-paid" subscriber base in Pakistan.
5.5Zong
ZONG is The first International brand of China Mobile being launched in Pakistan. It is meant to empower and liberate the people of Pakistan in every nook and corner of the country. It will become a part of their hearts, their minds and bring about a change in their lives that every one desired but few thought would be possible.
The core essence of ZONG is to allow people to communicate at will, without worrying about tariffs, network coverage, capacity issues or congestion. ZONG will be supported by ground breaking communications, trend setting customer service and an unmatched product offering which will redefine rules of the game and establish ZONG as a serious contender for the number one spot. ZONG would offer its customers with entertaining & innovative value added services and will empower them by giving a wide variety of products, services & content to choose from.
6. Problem Definition
6.1 Consumer behavior
Consumer behavior involves the psychological processes that consumers go through in recognizing needs, finding ways to solve these needs, making purchase decisions (e.g., whether or not to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpret information, make plans, and implement these plans (e.g., by engaging in comparison shopping or actually purchasing a product). Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management, personalization, customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.

6.2 Why do consumers switch?
There are some of the factors which lead to consumer switching behavior:
6.2.1Core Service Failures
Core service behavior has been cited as the major reason for switching the service sector. Core service failure includes the critical incidents that were due to mistakes or with other technical problem with the service itself. These include billing error, service mistakes and service catastrophe. The customer behavior of inaccurate billing combined with error in the time can result in switching behavior. The aspect of core service failure is service catastrophes, breakdown of core function of Service Company, which can result in loss of appropriate service and negatively impact the consumer in term of time and money.
6.2.2Involuntary switching
Though not very common within this industry, there are occasions when the client switches due to circumstances beyond the control of the client or the provider. An example of this is when a client moves to an area where their provider does not have good coverage and the client is consequently forced to go with a different service provider.
6.2.3Service encounter failures
Service encounter failure is considered to be the second most important reason in service industry. The failure is related to failure to human factor in the firm. Employee who treat consumer in an impolite, uncaring and unresponsive way can cause dissatisfaction in consumers. An employee who is unknowledgeable can also be contributing factor to consumer switching away.
6.2.4Pricing
It indicates that pricing is third largest reason in switching behavior. While pricing be the sole factor motivating the switch behavior, very often it’s combined with switch behavior. Pricing includes rates, surcharging, penalties and promotional deals. Customer tends to switch not only because the price is high, but also when the price increase is deemed unfair.
6.2.5Competitive Offers
Competition in cellular company is mainly among largest carriers. Each carrier is trying to attract new clients to its network by offering them massive discounts, promotional time bound free calling etc. this has to lead numerous choices for the cost conscious consumer. The price war has now become constant factor in this industry with companies trying to undercut each share for the market share. The main tool used for promotions is advertisements.
6.2.6Ethical problems
Behavior can be unethical such as dishonesty, unsafe practice and conflicts of interest falls into the ethical problem category. A common complaint among customer has been that while cell phone service provider announces a low price for their package. Such hidden pricing can prove harmful in long run as it results in massive churn with customer switching as soon as better offer is made.
Another ethical issue arises when service provider employer an independent dealer that is so profit motivated that complete information is not provided to customer upon motivation. By time customer realizes the extra charges they have to pay.
6.2.7Complete service providers
Many of the cellular service providers are complete service providers offering wire line, Internet ant wireless services. Although each of the branches may be set up as independent companies, in the minds of the customers they are one. As a result, dissatisfaction in one area can quickly snowball and lead to switching behavior where the client withdraws the complete service from the organization.
6.2.8Changes in technology
With technology advancing at a rapid pace, cellular service providers are scrambling to keep up with customer needs and in the process trying to distinguish themselves from the competitor.’…Carriers completely and fiercely…. More and faster ways to send data”. Offering new services not only help companies gain and retain customers but it also provides a mean of generating greater revenue from one client. Companies that do not offer services in keeping with the technological trend ultimately end up losing the client to a competitor that does offer the service.
6.2.9Soft shoppers
As mentioned earlier, in an attempt to woo customers, companies are targeting them heavily through advertisements, mall intercepts, and telemarketing. The outcome of this has been the change in consumers. Consumers today are a lot more aware of the different services available to them and do not hesitate in doing constant price comparisons to get the best deal. These consumers are called ‘soft shoppers”.
7. OBJECTIVES
Identifying and understanding customer switching behavior is important for a company, as executives will be forewarned allowing them the time to find a way of forestalling the negative impacts of switching. This research outlines the overall trends in the Pakistani Cellular Industry and identifies the motivators for consumer switching behaviors. This research paper is conducted in order to get a clear picture of consumer switching behavior due to broadcast media advertising. The research also aims to find out how advertising affects the choice of students in selection of different packages offered by cellular providers. Due to this the research focuses whether it results in consumer switching to other cellular providers from their current service provider. We have focused the students studying in different universities of Karachi and were able to collect information from FAST-NU and MAJU University. The competitive landscape in the wireless telecommunications industry has rapidly changing. We aimed to know about the level of competition between the cellular providers.
8. Limitations
This study has several limitations. First, due to financial and time restraints, a convenience sample of 2 different universities operating in Karachi is used. The student’s views may not be representative of the general population even if they are cellular users.
Second, due to convenience sample, there is a selection bias as the distribution of respondents is not sufficient across the service provider. Because of this, certain statistics cannot be run.
Third, use of a small sample possibly led to the insignificance of certain tests; however a different result might be attained if a larger sample size is used.
Fourth, as the surveys conducted are paper and pencil surveys, there might be bias in the answers as respondents have the ability to return to previously answered questions and change their answers.
Finally, this research has certain geographical limitations. Due to time and financial constraints, the study is conducted only in Karachi and has focused on four universities only. As we have all national service providers, these results would have to be extrapolated to other regions and universities. 9. Research Design
9.1 FRAMEWORK
A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out. A theoretical framework guides your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for. The variable which we have identified in our research is current cellular provider as independent variable. This is because students can choose any of the current cellular providers according to their own choice. The current cellular providers operating in Pakistan are Mobilink, Ufone, Telenor, Warid and Zong. This factor is totally out of our reach.
The dependant variable in our framework is the consumer switching behavior which is result of the factors which are discussed above in the part why consumers switch. Consumer switching behavior is taken as dependant because after using the service the outcome is informed of switching behavior.
There are several moderating factors identified in our framework that are core service failures, pricing, competitive offers, ethical problems, involuntary switching and technology. All of these factors are briefly discussed above in topic details of chapter Introduction, which gives a clear picture about the effectiveness of these factors in switching behavior.
10. MODEL

11. VARIABLES
The following variables are identified:
Independent variables:
Current Cellular providers
Mobilink
Ufone
Telnor
Warid
Zong
Dependant variables:
Consumer Switching Behavior
Moderating variables:
Pricing
Hidden charges
Monthly Package services
Competitive offers
Core service failures
Billing errors
Service mistakes
Disruptions
Ethical problems
Completeness of information provided by dealers
Hidden charges
Involuntary switching
Mergers or takeovers
Technology
Trendy phones
Latest features

12. Generation of Hypothesis 12.1 HYPOTHESIS
Null hypothesis
Current cellular providers result in consumer switching behavior.
Alternate hypothesis
Current cellular providers do not result in consumer switching behavior.
Type of investigation
The type of investigation being conducted is co relational because we are interested in finding association between the variables.
Study setting
Non contrived study was performed as work is normally proceeding. We used a natural environment.
Unit of analysis
Different institutions were used as our unit of analysis because we had taken three different institutes.
Time horizon
The research was gathered and organized in a period of three weeks.
Data collection methods
A questionnaire was developed in order to gather data on our research topic.

13. RESEARCH DESIGN
13.1 POPULATION
Our population included all the students studying in different universities of Karachi.
13.2 SAMPLE
The research sample was gathered from 30respondents which were taken from 3 samples. These four samples are basically taken from four different universities that is FAST-NU and MAJU
13.3 SAMPLING METHOD
The sampling method chosen for the research topic is simple random sampling. This is because each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, and each subset of individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of individuals.
13.4 PLAN OF ANALYSIS
The plan of analysis is based on the following criteria:
13.4.1 Frequency: This method is used to get the exact percentage about questions which were relating to our hypothesis. Through this we get the exact figure about number of respondents who were relating to our criteria.
13.4.2Cross Tabulation: We used this technique in order to know about the distribution of two or more variables. Different variables are compared to get the clear picture about the relationship between them.
13.4.5One sample T-Test: This technique is used in order to know about the validity of variables within the confidence interval.

13.5 SOFTWARE EMPLOYED
The software used for the analyzing of data is SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

14. Data Collection and Interpretation
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE GENDER gender

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
male
15
50.0
50.0
50.0

female
15
50.0
50.0
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

UNIVERSTY universty Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Fast
15
50.0
50.0
50.0

maju
15
50.0
50.0
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Question 1:Do you own a cellular phone? Yes No Do you own a cellular phone?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
yes
29
96.7
96.7
96.7

no
1
3.3
3.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

From this we can conclude that mostly everybody has a cell phone, which shows how necessary it is.

Question 2: Your current cellular provider is:
Your current cellular provider is

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Mobilink
3
10.0
10.0
10.0

Warid
7
23.3
23.3
33.3

Ufone
15
50.0
50.0
83.3

Telenor
4
13.3
13.3
96.7

Zong
1
3.3
3.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph clearly show that the Ufone is the most popular cellular provider for students, the reason for this our its attractive packages and services.

Question 3: On average how many minutes do you use per day on your cellular phone? On average how many minutes do you use per day on your cellular phone?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
less than 14 minutes
4
13.3
13.3
13.3

15-24 minutes
6
20.0
20.0
33.3

25-34 minutes
7
23.3
23.3
56.7

35-44 minutes
2
6.7
6.7
63.3

45 minutes or over
11
36.7
36.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Mostly students talk more than 45 minutes or more daily, this can be due to the availability of cheap packages offered by cellular providers.

Question 4: How likely are you to switch away from your existing cellular provider?

How likely are you to switch away from your existing cellular provider?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Very Unlikely
12
40.0
40.0
40.0

Unlikely
9
30.0
30.0
70.0

Neutral
6
20.0
20.0
90.0

Likely
2
6.7
6.7
96.7

Very Likely
1
3.3
3.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

The result clearly shows that people are unlikely to switch away from their cellular provider, and mostly the answers are rated above the neutral.
Question#5: How likely are you to switch to your service provider due to:
Q#5 a) High monthly package service

High monthly package service

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unlikely
1
3.3
3.3
3.3

unlikely
3
10.0
10.0
13.3

neutral
5
16.7
16.7
30.0

likely
11
36.7
36.7
66.7

very likely
10
33.3
33.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This result clearly shows that the “likely” students are switch their cellular provider due to the high monthly package service.

Q#5 b) Attracted features offered by Competitors

Attracted features offered by Competitors

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unlikely
1
3.3
3.3
3.3

unlikely
1
3.3
3.3
6.7

neutral
3
10.0
10.0
16.7

likely
8
26.7
26.7
43.3

very unlikely
17
56.7
56.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph shows that the students are very unlikely switch their cellular provider due to attracted features offerd by competitors.

Q#5 c) Hidden charges like high charges for overage or roaming

Hidden charges like high charges for overage or roaming

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unlikely
1
3.3
3.3
3.3

unlikely
4
13.3
13.3
16.7

neutral
4
13.3
13.3
30.0

likely
13
43.3
43.3
73.3

very likely
8
26.7
26.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

In this graph the result shows that the “likely” change their cellular providers due to hidden charges like overage or roaming.

Q#5 d) Influence from family & friends

Influence from family & friends

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unlikely
6
20.0
20.0
20.0

unlikely
11
36.7
36.7
56.7

neutral
9
30.0
30.0
86.7

likely
3
10.0
10.0
96.7

very likely
1
3.3
3.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph shows that the students are unlikely to change their cellular provider due to influence from family and friends.

Q#5 e ) Service disruptions like network upgrades & cell site breakdown Unreliable reception.

Service disruptions like network upgrades & cell site breakdown

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unlikely
3
10.0
10.0
10.0

unlikely
3
10.0
10.0
20.0

neutral
13
43.3
43.3
63.3

likely
8
26.7
26.7
90.0

very likely
3
10.0
10.0
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Question#6:How would you rate your current cellular provider on the following?
How would you rate your current cellular provider on the following?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very poor
2
6.7
6.7
6.7

poor
2
6.7
6.7
13.3

moderate
6
20.0
20.0
33.3

good
12
40.0
40.0
73.3

very good
8
26.7
26.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Most of the student rate their cellular provider good.

Question#7:How would you rate your current cellular provider on the following:

a) Package offering compared to that of competitors
Package offering compared to that of competitors

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
much worse
4
13.3
13.3
13.3

worse
4
13.3
13.3
26.7

moderate
6
20.0
20.0
46.7

better
7
23.3
23.3
70.0

much better
9
30.0
30.0
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph shows that the student rate their cellular provider “much better” due to package offerd compared that of yheir compitators.

Q#7 b) Hidden charges like roaming or overage charge

Hidden charges like roaming or overage charge

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very low
5
16.7
16.7
16.7

low
5
16.7
16.7
33.3

moderate
11
36.7
36.7
70.0

high
6
20.0
20.0
90.0

very high
3
10.0
10.0
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This result shows that the students rating their current cellular provider moderate due to hidden charges like roaming or overage.

Q#7 c) Selection of phone models

Selection of phone models

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
not at all trendy
4
13.3
13.3
13.3

less trendy
6
20.0
20.0
33.3

moderate trendy
5
16.7
16.7
50.0

trendy
7
23.3
23.3
73.3

very trendy
8
26.7
26.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Q#7 d) Resolution of customer complaints
Resolution of customer complaints

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very well resolved
1
3.3
3.3
3.3

well resolved
12
40.0
40.0
43.3

resolved
8
26.7
26.7
70.0

sometime resolved
5
16.7
16.7
86.7

not at all resolved
4
13.3
13.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph shows that that most of student rate ther current cellular provider good because their cellular provider well resolved their problem .

Q#7 e) Overall service provided –internet, cellular & landline phones
Overall service provided – internet, cellular and land line phones

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very unsatisfied
2
6.7
6.7
6.7

unsatisfied
2
6.7
6.7
13.3

moderate satisfied
10
33.3
33.3
46.7

satisfied
8
26.7
26.7
73.3

very satisfied
8
26.7
26.7
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Students are moderate satisfied with their cellular provider due to service provided, internet.

Q#7 f) Service disruptions like network upgrades and cell site breakdowns

Service disruptions like upgrades and cell sites breakdowns

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
very often disrupted
3
10.0
10.0
10.0

often disrupted
7
23.3
23.3
33.3

disrupted
9
30.0
30.0
63.3

not disrupted
7
23.3
23.3
86.7

not at all disrupted
4
13.3
13.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Question#8:To what extent the advertisements of the Current cellular companies affect your perception of their services? what extent the advertisements of the current cellular companies affect your perception of their services?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
no effect
1
3.3
3.3
3.3

least effect
1
3.3
3.3
6.7

moderate effect
14
46.7
46.7
53.3

affect
10
33.3
33.3
86.7

change preception
4
13.3
13.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

This graph shows that the affect of advertisements of their current cellular companies affect their perception of their service on the moderate affect.

Question 9: Would you ever prefer or change the service of a cellular company on the basis of advertisements?

Would you ever prefer or change the service of a cellular company on the basis of advertisements?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
yes
8
26.7
26.7
26.7

no
22
73.3
73.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

Students do not prefer to change their cellular service due to advertisements, advertisements doesn’t influence them to change from one cellular provider to another.
Question#10:How much amount do you spend monthly on your cellular phone?
How much amount do you spend monthly on your cellular phone?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Less than 500
15
50.0
50.0
50.0

500 to 999
9
30.0
30.0
80.0

1000 to 1499
3
10.0
10.0
90.0

1500 to 1999
2
6.7
6.7
96.7

2000 or more
1
3.3
3.3
100.0

Total
30
100.0
100.0

The major part of monthly expenditure of students is less than 500.

CROSS TABULATION

CELLULAR PROVIDER’S RELATION WITH ADVERTISEMENT
Your current cellular provider is * To what extent the advertisements of the current cellular companies affect your perception of their services? Crosstabulation
Count

To what extent the advertisements of the current cellular companies affect your perception of their services?
Total

no effect least effect moderate effect affect change preception

Your current cellular provider is mobilink 0
0
2
1
0
3

warid
0
0
2
2
3
7

ufone
1
1
6
6
1
15

telenor
0
0
3
1
0
4

zong
0
0
1
0
0
1
Total
1
1
14
10
4
30

CELLULAR PROVIDER’S RELATION WITH ADVERTISEMENTS
Advertisements play an important role for cellular providers because it can be clearly seen from the table below that mostly respondent’s perception changes about services due to the ads being shown on television and heard on radio.

CELLULAR PROVIDER RELATIONSHIP WITH SWITCHING FROM ITS EXISTING PROVIDER

Your current cellular provider is * How likely are you to switch away from your existing cellular provider? Cross tabulation
Count

How likely are you to switch away from your existing cellular provider?
Total

Very Unlikely
Unlikely
Neutral
Likely
Very Likely

Your current cellular provider is mobilink 1
0
2
0
0
3

warid
2
2
1
1
1
7

ufone
8
4
2
1
0
15

telenor
1
3
0
0
0
4

zong
0
0
1
0
0
1
Total
12
9
6
2
1
30
The students using cellular service are mostly unlikely to switch away from their existing cellular provider; this shows the loyalty with the cellular provider

15. Conclusion
Students do not change their cellular providers due to advertisements.
Consumer switching behavior consists of many factors which have a major impact on consumers.
Mostly people do not switch from their current cellular providers as they are highly influenced by their family and friends.
Ufone is most preferable among the students of the universities.
Being a new company Zong is not preferable among the students.
Trendy phones factor showed significant impact in switching of behavior.
Advertisements play a part in changing perception about services provided by cellular providers.
Respondents have showed good ratings for their cellular provider which shows the loyalty associated with the cellular provider.
SPSS software helped in analyzing of results which made easy for us to interpret the results.

16. RECOMMENDATION
The different cellular providers can conduct this study using its existing clients to understand their switching behavior, the factors important to them, and how they would rate the company on these factors.
Cellular providers can use this study to analyze their strengths and weaknesses as they have a clear picture about the factors which lead to switching behavior.
Keeping in mind the geographical restraints, the research should be conducted with a much larger sample size to confirm the findings. As a step further, the cellular providers can also compare certain geographic regions to see if that some are more prone to switching and then realign their offerings in that region. This step could be more valuable for a national company, as it will help save resources from regions where clients are loyal and pool them into regions where clients are more likely to switch. Hence, the company will have a more efficient use of its financial resources.
Advertisements play an important part in attraction of services provided by cellular providers, so they should be given much consideration.

17. APPENDIX 17.1CODE BOOK

Q#1
Q#2
Q#3
Q#4
Q#5 a)
C)
D)
e)
Q#6
Q#7
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Q#8
Q#9
Q#10
gend univ 1
2
2
2
4
5
2
2
1
5
4
3
5
2
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
3
3
1
5
5
4
1
4
3
4
4
4
1
4
2
4
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
3
5
2
2
3
4
5
3
5
2
3
3
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
3
4
4
4
2
2
5
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
2
3
1
2
1
3
5
1
5
5
4
3
4
4
5
1
5
2
3
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
4
2
5
5
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
4
3
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
5
4
4
4
5
1
3
4
5
3
3
2
5
4
5
2
3
2
1
2
3
3
1
2
5
5
1
5
2
5
2
5
4
5
2
4
1
1
1
2
1
5
2
3
4
3
4
4
3
4
2
1
2
3
3
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
4
5
2
5
5
5
2
2
2
4
3
5
5
5
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
1
4
4
4
5
4
4
2
2
2
2
3
1
5
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
5
1
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
3
5
2
3
5
4
2
1
4
5
3
2
3
1
4
4
2
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
5
2
4
4
4
3
3
1
5
2
5
3
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
5
5
5
5
2
4
3
4
3
4
1
5
4
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
3
2
5
4
4
1
4
4
2
4
3
2
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
4
5
5
3
4
5
1
3
5
2
3
4
4
2
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
3
4
2
1
3
5
4
4
1
5
2
3
4
2
4
2
2
1
3
5
2
5
4
4
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
5
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
5
3
1
5
4
5
2
5
2
4
5
5
2
5
1
1
1
3
3
4
4
3
5
3
1
1
2
4
2
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3
5
2
3
4
3
3
3
5
3
2
4
3
4
4
4
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
5
5
5
2
2
3
1
4
2
3
1
4
5
2
4
1
1
1
3
2
3
5
5
4
2
4
3
1
3
4
2
5
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
4
5
1
4
5
5
3
3
5
5
5
2
4
3
2
4
2
2
2
1
1
4
3
2
3
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
1
2
4
5
3
1
1
1
2
1
3
5
3
4
3
5
1
3
4
5
5
4
3
3
3
4
2
2
2
1
1
3
5
1
5
5
4
3
4
5
4
3
3
2
4
2
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
2
4
4
4
3
3
4
3
5
4
2
3
5
3
1
2
2
2
1
3
5
1
4
5
4
2
3
5
5
3
3
4
5
3
3
2
1
1
1

17.2QUESTIONNAIRE

Gender Male Female

University For questions 1-3, please check only one response that best applies to you.
1) Do you own a cellular phone? Yes No
2) Your current cellular provider is:
Mobilink
Warid
Ufone
Telenor
Zong
Other, Please Specify
3) On average how many minutes do you use per day on your cellular phone?
Less than 14 minutes
15-24 minutes
25-34 minutes
35-44 minutes
45 minutes or over
In the question below, please check one box on the scale, where left most indicates very unlikely and box on the extreme right indicates very likely.
4) How likely are you to switch away from your existing cellular provider?

Question5--In the questions below, please check one box on the scale, where left most indicates very unlikely and box on the extreme right indicates very likely.
5) How likely are you to switch to your service provider due to:
a) High monthly package service
b) Attracted features offered by
Competitors
c) Hidden charges like high charges for overage or roaming
d) Influence from family & friends
e) Service disruptions like network upgrades & cell site breakdown
6) How would you rate your current cellular provider on the following?

Question7--Please check one box on the anchored scale that best fits your opinion.
7) How would you rate your current cellular provider on the following:

a)Package offering compared to that of competitors

b) Hidden charges like roaming or overage charge

c) Selection of phone models

d) Resolution of customer complaints

e) Overall service provided
–internet, cellular & landline phones

f) Service disruptions like network upgrades and cell site breakdowns

8) To what extent the advertisements of the
Current cellular companies affect your perception of their services?

For questions 9-11, please check only one response that best applies to you.
9) Would you ever prefer or change the service of a cellular company on the basis of advertisements?
Yes No

10) How much amount do you spend monthly on your cellular phone?
Less than 500
500 to 999
1000 to 1499
1500 to 1999
2000 or more

*Thank you for your participation*

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