ABA SlideSet10

Topics: Reinforcement, Psychology, Index card Pages: 17 (577 words) Published: March 22, 2015
Chapter 10
Prompting and
Transfer of Stimulus
Control

Prompting and Transfer of
Stimulus Control
Used to develop stimulus control
(to get the right behavior to occur at the right
time – in the presence of the SD)
Used to develop new behaviors
Examples:
Teaching Trevor to hit a baseball
Teaching skills to kids with autism
Learning new material for a class
Others?

Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus
Control is used by:
Teachers
Coaches
Parents
Trainers
People who need to teach or train others

What is a Prompt?
An antecedent stimulus or event that
controls a response
A prompt gets the behavior to occur in the
correct situation so the behavior can be
reinforced
SD + prompt  R  SR

Types of Prompts
Response prompts
Stimulus prompts

Response prompts:
Involve the behavior of another person
- Verbal prompt
- Gestural prompt
- Modeling prompt
- Physical prompt

Stimulus prompts:
Involve change in an antecedent stimulus
- Within stimulus prompt
-Position, size, shape, color, intensity
- Extra-stimulus prompt
-Pictorial assistance with assembly line work
-X marks the spot (“Which is left?”)

Response vs. Stimulus
Response:
– Good for?
– Adding new behaviors to a repertoire

Stimulus:
– Good for?
– Helping establish stimulus control

Examples
SD (prompt) ------------> R -------------> SR
Baseball thrown ----> swing the ---------> hit the
by pitcher
bat correctly
baseball,
(coach’s assistance)
get praise
Written word “ENTER” ----> student ----> praise
(teacher says “enter”)
says “enter”

Transfer of Stimulus Control
Getting the behavior to occur in the
presence of the SD without prompts
Fading
Prompt delay

Fading
Gradual removal of a prompt while the response
occurs in the presence of the SD
Prompt fading - Gradually removing the response
prompt
Example: Coach provides less and less physical
assistance to Trevor to hit the ball
Stimulus fading - Gradually removing the
stimulus prompt
Example: Over time, the X on the back of a child’s
hand fades, allowing “left” response in presence
of “Which is your left hand?” SD

Fading
Least-to-most
– Used when you think the individual might not need a high level of prompting

Most-to-least
– Used when you think the individual might need a higher
level of prompting
– Verbal prompt
– Gestural prompt
– Modeling prompt
– Physical prompt

Prompt Delay
Present the SD, wait X number of seconds, then
present the prompt (if needed)
Example:
The teacher shows the word to Natasha and
waits 4 sec.
If Natasha does not say the word, the teacher
says the word as a prompt

Using Prompting and Fading
1.

Choose the most appropriate prompt strategy


Type? Response? Stimulus? Least-to-most? Most-to-least?

2. Get the learner’s attention
3. Present the SD


Might not know most effective prompt strategy until here

4. Prompt the correct response
5. Reinforce the correct response


6.

Magnitude manipulations

Fade the prompts over trials


Small/Large or Fast/Slow

7. Continue to reinforce unprompted responses
8. Use intermittent reinforcement for…


maintenance

Using Prompting and Fading to Study
for an ABA Exam
SD (+Prompt) -----------> R ----------->SR
practice test question
(+ prompt)

correct answer

self-praise

Prompt =
– looking up the correct answer

Fade prompts until you can answer the question
without looking it up

Using Index Cards to Study
SD - A question on one side
R - Providing the correct answer
Prompt - The correct answer on the other
side of the index card
Fading - Look at the answer on the card
less and less until you can give the
answer without looking

Think of your own prompts…
Physical prompts for getting a dog to
come on command?
Stimulus prompts to increase putting
efficiency?
Prompts & Fading

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