Behaving in a way that intentionally inflicts harm or injury onto another person.
Social Psychological explanations
Aggression is learnt through imitation and observation and is maintained if it is reinforced. The model should be powerful, similar and nurturing in order to influence the child. The model should also be seen to be rewarded. 4 stages:
Attention- a person has to pay attention to the behaviour of the model
Retention- the behaviour must be remembered
Reproduction- needs to be able to reproduce and replicate the behaviour
Motivation- the person needs to be motivated to display the behaviour
Bandura’s Bobo Doll study- children observed an adult acting either aggressively or non-aggressively towards a Bobo doll. Bandura found that children were more likely to display aggressive behaviour when they observed an aggressive role model.
Bandura, Ross and Ross- variation of the Bobo doll study- they compared the effects of real-life, filmed, and televised aggressive role models. They found that children were more likely to display aggressive behaviour when they observed a cartoon or filmed model, in comparison to real-life models.
Unethical (parental consent, protection from harm)
Lab experiment- artificial setting- lacks ecological validity- demand characteristics
The doll was designed to be knocked down (wasn’t necessarily abnormal for the child to hit it)
Child participants (unrepresentative sample)- may misunderstand (demand characteristics)
Face validity- helps to explain real life cases (Robert Thompson imitated Chucky)
Doesn’t consider biological factors (nature vs. nurture debate) - Unlike the SLT, biological theories have empirical evidence such as brain scans and hormone recordings. The biological explanation supports the debate that psychology is a science.
Says that aggression occurs when a person loses their own sense of identity, often when