8 Enthymeme

Topics: Logic, Argumentative, Premise Pages: 18 (984 words) Published: April 21, 2015
Enthymeme
 

1
 

Types
 of
 Categorical
 Arguments
1.
 Enthymeme
 (having
 less
 than
 3
 propositions)
 
 
2.
 Syllogism
 (having
 3
 propositions)
 
3.
 Sorites
 (having
 more
 than
 3
 propositions)
 

2
 

Enthymeme
 Definition
•  The
 incomplete
 form
 of
 argument
 having
 omitted
 
 premise
 
or
 conclusion.
 
e.g.
 
 Diamond
 is
 expensive,
 because
 it
 is
 rare.
 

 
 
•  Enthymeme
 represents
 the
 general
 use
 of
 argument
 in
 
natural
 language
 which
 is
 sometimes
 concise,
 unclear
 or
 
even
 ambiguous.
 

 Sometimes
 the
 speaker/writer
 of
 an
 enthymeme
 may
 
assume
 that
 the
 listener/reader
 would
 understand
 the
 
unspoken
 details,
 and
 it
 can
 be
 the
 case
 that
 the
 speaker/
writer
 wants
 to
 conceal
 some
 facts.

3
 

How
 to
 check
 an
 enthymeme
To
 check
 an
 enthymeme
 is
 to
 check
 its
 soundness.
 
A
 sound
 enthymeme
 must
 conform
 with
 the
 criteria
 
of
 being
 valid
 and
 true:
 
 
 
 

 
Criteria
 1
 (validity)
 the
 argument
 is
 valid.
 

 The
 conclusion
 is
 derived
 from
 the
 
 premises.
 
Criteria
 2
 (truth)
 each
 proposition
 is
 true.
 

 Each
 proposition
 is
 the
 fact.
 

 

 

4
 

Steps
 for
 checking
 an
 enthymeme
1.
 Form
 an
 enthymeme
 as
 syllogism
 

 
 -­‐
 Transform
 the
 provided
 propositions.
 

 
 “Diamond
 is
 expensive,
 because
 it
 is
 rare.”
 

 -­‐
 Set
 the
 syllogism.
 
 

 
Example
 
Major
 Premise:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ?
 (omitted)
 
Minor
 Premise:

 All
 diamonds
 are
 rare
 objects.
 
Conclusion:
 
 

 All
 diamonds
 are
 expensive
 objects.
 
 

 

 
 

 
5
 

2.
 Identify
 the
 omitted
 proposition.
 
 

 Try
 make
 the
 argument
 to
 be
 valid
 i.e.
 
conforming
 to
 the
 six
 rules.
 

 
 
 
Major
 Premise:
 
 All
 rare
 objects
 are
 expensive
 objects.
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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