Disaster and Crisis Management
Disaster and Crisis Management
Natural disasters are the type of disasters which are in most cases inevitable. They are usually caused by factors which are beyond human control. According to Lafambroise & Loko (2012), natural disasters are rarely caused by human practices. These types of disasters usually have vast effects on the global community. It affects the health, financial, and psychological status of human beings (Lafambroise & Loko, 2012). It is also worth noting that natural disasters also largely affect the environment (Johnson, 2006). A research done by the IMF suggests that the world is experiencing an increase in the number of victims of natural disasters (Lafambroise & Loko, 2012). This is mainly because the occurrence of natural disasters has increased rapidly for the past half century. Additionally, more than 450 million people were affected by natural disasters in the years 2009 to 2011 (Lafambroise & Loko, 2012). This number gives a scope of how much the international community spends before and during the aftermath of such disasters. Some of the examples of natural disasters suggested by Johnson (2006) include; tornadoes, drought and famine, hurricanes, and storms among others. The mentioned types of natural disasters are some of the many lethal calamities the world experiences (Lafambroise & Loko, 2012). James (2012) connotes that natural disasters usually have negative impacts on the psychological, cognitive, and behavioural development of human beings. It is therefore highly recommended that the international society unite and work towards mitigating this type of disaster. Crisis Intervention Approach when Responding to Natural disasters
James and Gilliland (2012) recommend the application of basic theory when responding to the natural disaster. This theory suggests that the use of brief, short term therapy helps the patient deal with the emotional problems caused by the disaster. This method of intervention helps the patient deal with temporary cognitive and behavioural issues (James, 2012). However, it is worth noting that this strategy is usually solution focused.
Benveniste (n.d) argues that after an occurrence of a natural disaster, the victims are usually subjected to a psychological crisis. He explains this statement by arguing that most of the victims are unable to cope with the situation in their typical life situation. For instance, the 1999 Venezuelan flood destroyed the homes of 500,000 people and led to the demise of 50,000 people (Benveniste, n.d). This status was bound to cause fear and trauma among the victims and thus the counsellors should apply effective intervention approaches while dealing with the victims.
The therapist should first get basic information about the victims (James & Gilliland, 2012). This psychotherapy procedure is mostly aimed at reducing the tension in the patient. The victim should be free with the therapist after this process since it sets him/her at ease. It is in this contact stage when the counsellor refers the patient to different medical institutions after thorough consultation (Benveniste, n.d). Since most victims of natural disasters lose focus in their life, the therapist should work towards helping them realize their goals. The patient should first relax, discuss what happened to them, and try setting new goals (Benveniste, n.d). James and Gilliland (2012) argue that the victims should be assisted to create goals so as to avoid the occurrence of behavioural emergency. He further argues that behavioural emergency leads the victims to making lethal actions such as self-injuries and suicide. They should be helped to meet goals such as finding sources of income and shelter after being dislocated as a result of the natural disaster.
The use of the...
References: James, R.K., and Gilliland, B.E. (2013). Crisis Intervention Strategies (7th ed). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Johnson, D.J. (2006). Natural Disaster and Vulnerability. OECD Development Centre. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dev/37860801.pdf
Karadag, O.C., and Hakan, K.A. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine. Iran Red Crescent Med Journal, Vol. 14, No. 10, Pp. 602-612.
Laframboise, N., and Loko, B. (2012). Natural Disasters: Mitigating Impact, Managing Risks. Washington, US: International Monetary Fund
Soliman, H., and Rogge, E.M. (2002). Ethical Considerations in Disaster Services: Social Work Perspective. Electronic Journal of Social Work, Vol. 1, No. 1
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