Dietary aspects of obesity – 5:2 Diet
As a therapist it is important to have an understanding of the role diet and what lifestyle factors play in the maintenance of health so that you can advise clients accordingly. Recommending client’s have a balanced healthy diet is the preferred way to keep the body healthy, however for some people, diet’s are an easier way to loose weight. According to the National Statistics (2013), the portion of adults that are overweight including obese ‘increased from 58% to 65% in men and from 49% to 58% in women’ from 1993 to 2011 (p.6). Obesity is rising in the UK with the number of children considered obese increasing. In 2011, ‘around 3 in 10 boys and girls’ ages 2 to 15 were classified as overweight or obese National Statistics (2013, p.6). Obesity is someone who is overweight with a high portion of ‘excesses body fat’ Satter & Lean (2009, p.1). A BMI between 30 and 40 would be considered obese and over 40 would be morbidly obese. Obesity increases individual’s risks to health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diets can be conducted in order for obese people to loose weight. Different diet plans and organisation encourage weight lost through calorie control, calorie restriction or a specific dietary intake, provide support and increase regular exercise. A Balanced and healthy diet according to the NHS Choices (2013), Truswell (1999) and Sattar & Lean (2009) should consist of a variety of macronutrients and micronutrient. Macronutrients are carbohydrates, protein, amino acids, fat, cholesterols, fibre and water. The eatwell plate (Figure1) shows the quantity of each macronutrient is required. It is necessary to have these nutrients in our diet as they are ‘used to build and repair body cell, create hormones, neurotransmitters’ and further functions Cooper (1999, p.70). Needed for……. ‘Overweight people tend to have raised plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides’ Truswell (1999, p.3). However, cholesterol is essential for production of Vitamin D in the body and repair to damaged cell membranes Garcia (1998, 109).
Micronutrients include all vitamins such as vitamin A, B complex, C, E, K, biotin and folic acid and minerals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc and fluoride. Need for…… It is recommended that around 1mg of each vitamin is needed in the daily balanced diet Truswell (1999), however around 40-60mg is required of Vitamin C and 10mg for Vitamin E. Vitamin C promotes the absorption of iron from food and manufactures collagen and connective tissue due to the continence of hydroxyproline. Whilst Vitamin E acts as an anti-oxidant, preventing destructive attack of molecular oxygen on fatty acids. The 5:2 Diet (not in word count)
The plan of the 5:2 Diet is to introduce fasting into a weekly regime. The idea is to eat the recommended daily intake of calories on five days of the week. An average man needs around 2,500 calories a day, whilst an average woman needs around 2,000 calories per day according to NHS (2013) Healthy Eating recommendations. On the remaining two days of the week, the calorie intake should be reduced to a quarter of usual daily intake.
Where the two days fall in a week in which fasting commences is up to the individual. The days can fall one after the other, or they can be non-consecutive. Within these two days of fasting, the reduced calorie intake means meals have to be thought out by the individual and calories have to be counted. Although the 5:2 diet does not specify a particular food plan for the fast days, there are many recipe books for inspiration and guideline, informing the reader of the calorific intake from the meal. Some individuals choose to follow a ‘tradition three-meals-a-day routine’ that consists of low-calorie intakes for each meal Ebury press (2013, p.7). However, others prefer one light meal and a higher calorie intake meal....
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