4 PARTS OF ITALY
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies—ruled by the French
Papal States—governed by the Pope
Northern Italian States—controlled by Austria
Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont—ruled by King Victor
•Kingdom of the Two
Sicilies—ruled by the
governed by the
ruled by King Victor
Italian term for the movement of unification
Why was Italy hard to unify?
1. lots of rivers and mountains to divide country
2. foreign nations controlled parts of Italy—
Kingdom of Two Sicilies=France, Venice=Austria
3 most important people who worked for Italian
He was the leader of Risorgimento who was the first nationalist leader of Italy
Young Italy- An organization dedicated to unite Italy under a democratic government and reform Italy’s social structure
Why important? He inspired Italian nationalists to work towards unifying Italy
Sardinia was the only
independent state left within
the Italian Peninsula
It was ruled by a king
King Victor Emmanuel II
It’s government was a
His chief minister was
Camillo Benso di Cavour
He was opposed to Austrian domination, so
he joined Risorgimento (unification
He unified Italy through diplomacy and
political maneuvering. This included making
alliances with France (why France??) so he
could go to war with Austria and gain the
territory of Lombardy.
France wanted Nice for its help.
French and Piedmontese were able to defeat
the Austrians and take over Lombardy.
Under Cavoursince he and
able to defeat
become part of
Cavour’s diplomacy was very
practical. He didn’t care what
happened as long as it moved Italian
He is known as the Architect
of Italian unification
Conquered Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (South) with his
force/army called the Red Shirts. He then unified the rest of southern Italy through military force.
Believed in a liberal society which supported workers’ rights, self determination, and female emancipation.
Even though he disliked the idea of a monarchy, he
was worried about a civil war between northern and
southern Italy. So he turned over the K of 2 S to Victor
Emmanuel who was the King of Northern Italy
Now, the nationalists need Venice and the Papal States
gain Venice (controlled
~ They supported Prussia in the Seven Weeks
War against Austria, so they gained Venice when
Austria lost the war.
The French withdrew their troops from Rome due
to their war with Prussia (Franco-Prussian War).
Italian soldiers took over Rome/Papal States.
Italy was united, with Rome as its capital.
The Pope is not happy and does not recognize
the new Italian state
PROBLEMS FOR THE NEW
Cultural differences between the north and south
Industrious in the North, and agricultural in the south
Standard of living was low
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