Topics: Rhetoric, Virtue, Thought Pages: 2 (424 words) Published: April 16, 2015
Brian Foersch
4.4 - Answer Aristotle Book 1 and 2 Study Questions
Hannah Hornung

1. List and briefly describe Aristotle's three species of rhetoric. (34 points) Deliberative takes place in the assembly. The speaker either advises the audience to do something or warns against something. The audience needs to judge things that are going to happen if they will be good or bad. Judicial is a speech that takes place in front of a court. The speaker either accuses or defends himself or another. Epideictic rhetoric either praises or blames someone. It tries to describe things or deeds of the respective person as honorable or shameful. 2. Outline Aristotle's degrees of wrongdoing in terms of the seven causes of people's actions. (33 points) Vice is the opposite of virtue and developed through life. Habit is one of the causes of Vice. Its unthinking action comes from them doing it all their life and not having to think about it. Incontinence is doing the wrong thing and knowing that you are doing it. That is why reasoning is a cause that correlates with incontinence. Appetite can also be a cause for incontinence since that the appetite for something can make you do the unthinkable without even second guessing what you are doing. Brutishness is the extreme form of wrongdoing. A person who is brutish reacts without regard to anything. No thinking is involved in the decisions of a brutish person. Compulsion is the number one cause for all of this behavior. 3. Define and briefly discuss the following emotions: Friendship and Enmity, Fear and Confidence, and Emulation. (33 points) Friendship is companionship, intimacy, and kinship. Friendship is the bond between two people who have common pleasures and react to problems the same way. Enmity comes from anger and spite. These feelings are ones of hatred. Enmity is used to describe a person who has tarnished something you believe in. The emotions are pointed at an individual or a group. Fear is derived from...
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