360 Degree Review
In human resources or industrial psychology, 360-degree feedback, is feedback that comes from members of an employee's immediate work circle. Most often, 360-degree feedback will include direct feedback from an employee's subordinates, peers, and supervisors, as well as a self-evaluation. It can also include, in some cases, feedback from external sources, such as customers and suppliers or other interested stakeholders. It may be contrasted with "upward feedback," where managers are given feedback only by their direct reports, or a "traditional performance appraisal," where the employees are most often reviewed only by their managers. The results from a 360-degree evaluation are often used by the person receiving the feedback to plan and map specific paths in their development. Results are also used by some organizations in making administrative decisions related to pay and promotions. When this is the case, the 360 assessment is for evaluation purposes, and is sometimes called a "360-degree review." However, there is a great deal of controversy as to whether 360-degree feedback should be used exclusively for development purposes, or should be used for appraisal purposes as well. The first advantage of the 360-degree feedback is that it has the greatest impact when used to evaluate and improve the performance of whole organizations. Companies can use data collected on feedback programs to monitor consistent patterns or areas of weakness for employees within the organization. According to the site, organizations develop more effective training programs targeted at collecting common areas of weakness for employees throughout the organization or in specific departments. The second advantage is from an individual perspective, an all-around feedback mechanism helps employees see whether a consistency exists in the way their performance is viewed by more than just the manager. Individuals receive specific information that allows them to...
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