3 Principles Of Projective Technique

Topics: Psychometrics, Projective test, Psychological testing Pages: 18 (633 words) Published: December 5, 2014
PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

 A projective

test, is a personality test
designed to let a person respond to
ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing
hidden emotions and internal conflicts.
This is different from an "objective test" in
which responses are analyzed according
to a universal standard (for example, a
multiple choice exam).

 The

responses to projective tests are
content analyzed for meaning rather than
being based on presuppositions about
meaning, as is the case with objective
tests.
 Projective tests in general rely heavily on
clinical judgement, lack reliability and
validity and many have no standardized
criteria to compare results to, but are still
used frequently.

 Their

popularity despite lack of scientific
evidence supporting their results is
referred to as the "projective paradox".
 Projective tests have their origins in
psychoanalytic psychology, which argues
that humans have conscious and
unconscious attitudes and motivations that
are beyond or hidden from conscious
awareness.

THEORY
 The

general theoretical position behind
projective tests is that whenever a specific
question is asked, the response will be
consciously-formulated and socially
determined.
 These responses do not reflect the
respondent's unconscious or implicit
attitudes or motivations.

 The

respondent's deep-seated motivations may
not be consciously recognized by the
respondent or the respondent may not be able to
verbally express them in the form demanded by
the questioner.
 Advocates of projective tests stress that the
ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the
tests allow subjects to express thoughts that
originate on a deeper level than tapped by
explicit questions.

 Projective

tests lost some of their
popularity during the 1980s and 1990s in
part because because of the overall loss
of popularity of the psychoanalytic method
and theories. Despite this, they are still
used quite frequently.

I. Nature of Projective Techniques:
 Unstructured

Response Format-- unlimited
variety of response options.
 Few instructions-- attempt to evoke
"unconscious" material
 Ambiguous Stimulus Field- Use of Deception-- no face validity, in that the test taker is usually not aware of the type of
psychological interpretation that will be made of
their responses.

II. Underlying Assumptions of Projective
Techniques:
 A. The Projective Hypothesis: the way in
which the individual perceives and
interprets the test material (i.e., structures)
will reflect fundamental aspects of his
psychological functioning.

 B.

Global Approach to personality: a
composite picture of the whole personality,
rather than measuring specific traits or
characteristics.
 C. Reveal covert, latent, or unconscious
aspects of personality-- The more
unstructured the test, less likely it is to
evoke defensive reactions.

DIFFERENCES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES AND PSYCHOMETRIC
TESTS
 Projective
 The

Techniques are unitary

objective is to see the person as a whole

 Psychometric
 Fragments

Tests are atomistic

of consciousness are revealed

DIFFERENCES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES AND PSYCHOMETRIC
TESTS
 Projective

Techniques

 Interpretation

 Psychometric
 Interpretation

is qualitative and subjective

Tests

follows a structured key to
correction, objective, and quantitative.

DIFFERENCES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES AND PSYCHOMETRIC
TESTS
 Projective
 The

Techniques

material used an ambiguous stimuli

 Psychometric
 The

Tests

material used is a structured stimuli.

DIFFERENCES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES AND PSYCHOMETRIC
TESTS
 Projective

Techniques

 Uses

ideographic approach which is after the
uniqueness of the person.

 Psychometric
 Uses

Tests

nomothetic approach which is after the
commonality of the person with others.

DIFFERENCES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES...
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