3 Chapters

Topics: Pectin, Hair gel, Hairstyle Pages: 11 (3347 words) Published: August 24, 2013
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Peel waste are highly perishable and seasonal, is a problem to the processing industries and pollution monitoring agencies. There is always an increased attention in bringing useful products from waste materials and citrus wastes are no exceptions. Suitable methods have to be adopted to utilize them for the conversion into value-added products [Nand, (1998)]. Pectin exists in varying amounts in fruit cell walls and has important nutritional and technological properties, mainly because of its ability to form gels (Westerlund etal, 1991). Pectin is a polysaccharide having properties such as gelation and emulsion stabilization which make it useful in the manufacture of food, cosmetics, and medicine. It is a normal constituent of food and may therefore be safely ingested. Citrus peel, a by-product of the citrus processing industry, is a suitable source of pectin (Sakai and Okushima 1980).Pectin is a naturally occurring substance present in all plant tissue, calcium pectin being present between the cell walls and serving as a strengthening or building agent. The traditional use of pectin has been as a gelling agent, and this has largely dictated the types of fruit from which commercial grades can be manufactured. A major consideration is the availability of fruit by-products in sufficient quantity and quality. Before the development of a distinct pectin industry it was often the practice for jam makers to make a simple pectin extract from waste fruit material such as apple cores or surplus orange pith, but commercial production demands large quantities of available raw material. The history of the industry up to 1950 is described by Kertesz. Since that date, there has been a geographical shift of the production of pectin, driven to a large extent by difficulties with water supply and more especially effluent disposal in areas such as southern California, so that the major US plants producing citrus pectin, who had come to dominate that market, have been closed down by the companies concerned. The largest pectin plants today are either in Europe or in Latin America, and the expectation is that more of the industry may move to citrus-producing areas in future. Pectin is very susceptible to degradation either by enzymes in the wet peel or by heat during drying and subsequent processing, and such loss of quality must always be controlled as far as possible. Pectin producers devote considerable resources to ensuring both the availability and quality of raw materials, and quality has a major effect on the types of pectin which can be economically produced. Because of the arising demand in producing pectin from fruits, the researcher will conduct a study on extraction of pectin from palapat fruit peels utilizing the waste material for its possible benefit in cosmetic industry.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to utilize the used of waste materials by extracting pectin from palapat fruit peels for the formulation of hair gel. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions. 1. Is it possible to extract pectin from dried palapat peels? 2. Is it feasible to produce hair gel out of the extracted pectin? 3. Between the given formulations (6:3:1, 7:2:1 ratio of extracted pectin, distilled water, 95% ethyl alcohol), which is the most comparable to commercial hair gel?

Significance of the Study
This study will be focus on utilizing waste material by means of extracting pectin from palapat fruit peels for the formulation of hair gel. If the result of this study is permissing, it will benefit the future researchers. The results obtained from this study can initiate further studies on the other uses of palapat fruit. The success of this study will also be a great help for the people because the use of extracted pectin for the formulation of hair gel will make deflation on the cost of the hair gel’s production Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study deals with utilization of...
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