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Synthesis and Array Processor Realization of a 2-D IIR Beam Filter for Wireless Applications Rimesh M. Joshi, Student Member, IEEE, Arjuna Madanayake, Member, IEEE, Jithra Adikari, Member, IEEE, and Len T. Bruton, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—A broadband digital beamforming algorithm is proposed for directional ﬁltering of temporally-broadband bandpass space-time plane-waves at radio frequencies (RFs). The enhancement of desired waves, as well as rejection of undesired interfering plane-waves, is simulated. A systolic- and wavefront-array architecture is proposed for the real-time implementation of second-order spatially-bandpass (SBP) 2-D inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) beam ﬁlters having potential applications in broadband beamforming of temporally down-converted RF signals. The higher speed of operation and potentially reduced power consumption of the asynchronous architecture of wavefront-array processors (WAPs) in comparison to the conventional synchronous hardware has emerging applications in radio-astronomy, radar, navigation, space science, cognitive radio, and wireless communications. Further, the bit error rate (BER) performance improvement along with the reduced computational complexity of the 2-D IIR SBP frequency-planar digital ﬁlter over digital phased array feed (PAF) beamformer is provided. A nominal BER versus signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) gain of 10–16 dB compared to case where beamforming is not applied, and a gain of 2–3 dB at approximately half the number of parallel multipliers to digital PAF, are observed. The results of application-speciﬁc integrated circuit (ASIC) synthesis of the digital ﬁlter designs are also presented. Index Terms—Array processors, bit error rate (BER), digital phased array feed (PAF), ﬁeld-programmable gate array (FPGA), multidimensional digital ﬁlters, spatial modulation, systolic, wavefront, wireless.
I. INTRODUCTION LTRA-WIDEBAND (UWB) wireless communications –, cognitive radio –, cooperative wireless sensor networks ,  require highly directional and electronically steerable smart antenna arrays capable of broadband plane-wave (PW) ﬁltering at RFs to improve the bit-error rate (BER) caused due to interference from multiple users
Manuscript received May 25, 2011; revised September 05, 2011; accepted October 13, 2011. R. M. Joshi and A. Madanayake are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3904 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com). J. Adikari is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). L. T. Bruton is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada (e-mail: email@example.com). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2174167
and multipath fading. These antenna arrays typically employ beamforming using analog delay-and-sum networks, fractional delay based delay-and-sum digital networks , digital phased array feeds (PAFs) – and multi-dimensional ﬁnite-impule response/inﬁnte impulse response (FIR/IIR) digital ﬁlters , . Digital signal processing (DSP)-based broadband smart antenna arrays have potential applications in UWB wireless communications , , , cognitive radio –, software-deﬁned radio , microwave imaging , space science and radio astronomy –, remote-sensing and navigation , . The systolic-array and scanned-array implementation of 2-D and 3-D IIR broadband frequency-planar ﬁlters for digital beamforming have been proposed...
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14 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS
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Rimesh M. Joshi (S’10) received the B.E. degree in electronics and communication engineering from Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, in 2008, and the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Akron, Akron, OH, in 2011. Arjuna Madanayake (M’03) received the B.Sc. degree in electronic and telecommunication engineering from the University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, in 2002, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, in 2004 and 2008, respectively. He is a Tenure-track Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH. Jithra Adikari (M’07) received B.Sc. degree in electronic and telecommunication engineering from the University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, in 2002, the M.Sc. degree in information technology from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, in 2010. He is with Elliptic Technologies, Canada. He was with the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Len T. Bruton (F’81) is Professor Emeritus with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Prof. Bruton was a recipient of many awards including the 2002 IEEE Circuits and Systems Education Award, the 1994 IEEE Outstanding Engineering Award, and the 1991 Manning Principal Award. In 1994, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He has been featured in the 1997 Great Canadian Scientists by Barry Shell.
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