# 2d Iir Beam Filter

**Topics:**Digital signal processing, Signal processing, Computational complexity theory

**Pages:**29 (10527 words)

**Published:**August 24, 2013

Synthesis and Array Processor Realization of a 2-D IIR Beam Filter for Wireless Applications Rimesh M. Joshi, Student Member, IEEE, Arjuna Madanayake, Member, IEEE, Jithra Adikari, Member, IEEE, and Len T. Bruton, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—A broadband digital beamforming algorithm is proposed for directional ﬁltering of temporally-broadband bandpass space-time plane-waves at radio frequencies (RFs). The enhancement of desired waves, as well as rejection of undesired interfering plane-waves, is simulated. A systolic- and wavefront-array architecture is proposed for the real-time implementation of second-order spatially-bandpass (SBP) 2-D inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) beam ﬁlters having potential applications in broadband beamforming of temporally down-converted RF signals. The higher speed of operation and potentially reduced power consumption of the asynchronous architecture of wavefront-array processors (WAPs) in comparison to the conventional synchronous hardware has emerging applications in radio-astronomy, radar, navigation, space science, cognitive radio, and wireless communications. Further, the bit error rate (BER) performance improvement along with the reduced computational complexity of the 2-D IIR SBP frequency-planar digital ﬁlter over digital phased array feed (PAF) beamformer is provided. A nominal BER versus signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) gain of 10–16 dB compared to case where beamforming is not applied, and a gain of 2–3 dB at approximately half the number of parallel multipliers to digital PAF, are observed. The results of application-speciﬁc integrated circuit (ASIC) synthesis of the digital ﬁlter designs are also presented. Index Terms—Array processors, bit error rate (BER), digital phased array feed (PAF), ﬁeld-programmable gate array (FPGA), multidimensional digital ﬁlters, spatial modulation, systolic, wavefront, wireless.

I. INTRODUCTION LTRA-WIDEBAND (UWB) wireless communications [1]–[4], cognitive radio [5]–[8], cooperative wireless sensor networks [9], [10] require highly directional and electronically steerable smart antenna arrays capable of broadband plane-wave (PW) ﬁltering at RFs to improve the bit-error rate (BER) caused due to interference from multiple users

U

Manuscript received May 25, 2011; revised September 05, 2011; accepted October 13, 2011. R. M. Joshi and A. Madanayake are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3904 USA (e-mail: rmj17@uakron.edu; arjuna@uakron.edu). J. Adikari is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada (e-mail: jithra.adikari@uwaterloo.ca). L. T. Bruton is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada (e-mail: bruton@ucalgary.ca). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2174167

and multipath fading. These antenna arrays typically employ beamforming using analog delay-and-sum networks, fractional delay based delay-and-sum digital networks [1], digital phased array feeds (PAFs) [11]–[13] and multi-dimensional ﬁnite-impule response/inﬁnte impulse response (FIR/IIR) digital ﬁlters [5], [14]. Digital signal processing (DSP)-based broadband smart antenna arrays have potential applications in UWB wireless communications [1], [2], [15], cognitive radio [5]–[8], software-deﬁned radio [16], microwave imaging [17], space science and radio astronomy [18]–[21], remote-sensing and navigation [22], [23]. The systolic-array and scanned-array implementation of 2-D and 3-D IIR broadband frequency-planar ﬁlters for digital beamforming have been proposed...

References: [1] S. Ries and T. Kaiser, “Towards beamforming for UWB signals,” in Proc. EUSIPCO, 2004, pp. 829–832. [2] UWB Communication Systems—A Comprehensive Overview, M.-G. D. Benedetto, T. Kaiser, A. F. Molisch, I. Oppermann, C. Politano, and D. P. , Eds. New York: Hindawi, 2006.

[3] L. Liang and S. V. Hum, “Experimental characterization of UWB beamformers based on multidimensional beam ﬁlters,” IEEE Trans. Ant. Propag., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 304–309, Jan. 2011. [4] S. V. Hum, A. Madanayake, and L. T. Bruton, “UWB beamforming using 2D beam digital ﬁlters,” IEEE Trans. Ant. Propag. (TAP), vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 804–807, Mar. 2009. [5] T. Gunaratne and L. Bruton, “Adaptive complex-coefﬁcient 2D FIR trapezoidal ﬁlters for broadband beamforming in cognitive radio systems,” Circuits, Syst., Signal Process., vol. 30, pp. 587–608, 2011. [6] K. Hamdi, W. Zhang, and K. Ben Letaief, “Joint beamforming and scheduling in cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2007, pp. 2977–2981. [7] G. Zheng, S. Ma, K. kit Wong, and T.-S. Ng, “Robust beamforming in cognitive radio,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 570–576, Feb. 2010. [8] K. Cumanan, L. Musavian, S. Lambotharan, and A. Gershman, “SINR balancing technique for downlink beamforming in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 133–136, Feb. 2010. [9] Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. Lim, “Beamforming with limited feedback in amplify-and-forward cooperative networks,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5145–5149, Dec. 2008. [10] Y. Zhang, X. Li, and M. Amin, “Distributed beamforming in multiuser cooperative wireless networks,” in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Commun. Network. China (ChinaCOM), 2009, pp. 1–5. [11] B. Jeffs, K. Warnick, J. Landon, J. Waldron, D. Jones, J. Fisher, and R. Norrod, “Signal processing for phased array feeds in radio astronomical telescopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Signal Process., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 635–646, Oct. 2008. [12] M. Elmer and B. D. Jeffs, “Beamformer design for radio astronomical phased array feeds,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. (ICASSP) Conf., 2010, pp. 2790–2793. [13] K. F. Warnick, B. D. Jeffs, J. Landon, J. Waldron, D. Jones, J. R. Fisher, and R. Norrod, “Beamforming and imaging with the BYU/ NRAO L-band 19-element phased array feed,” in Proc. 13th Int. Symp. Ant. Technol. Appl. Electromagn. Canadian Radio Sci. Meet. (ANTEM/ URSI), 2009, pp. 1–4. [14] A. Madanayake, “Real-time FPGA architectures for frequency-planar MDSP,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Comput. Eng., Univ. Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2008. [15] Z. N. C. Huseyin Arslan and M.-G. D. Benedetto, Ultra Wideband Wireless Communication. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2006. [16] T. H. Khine, K. Fakuwa, and H. Suzuki, “Systolic OMF-RAKE: Linear interference canceller-utilizing systolic array for mobile communications,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, no. 5, pp. 2128–2135, May 2005. [17] E. M. Staderini, “UWB radars in medicine,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 2002. [18] A. V. Ardenne, “Concepts of the square kilometre array; Toward the new generation radio telescopes,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ant. Propag., 2000, pp. 158–161. [19] S. W. Ellingson, “A DSP engine for a 64-element array,” in Proc. Perspectives for Radio Astronomy—Technol. for Large Ant. Arrays, 1999, pp. 235–242. [20] M. C. VanBeurden, A. B. Smolders, and M. E. J. Jeuken, “Design of wideband phased antenna arrays,” in Proc. Perspectives for Radio Astronomy—Technol. for Large Ant. Arrays, 1999, pp. 347–352.

This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination.

14 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS

[21] A. Faulkner, P. Alexander, A. Van-Ardenne, R. Bolton, J. Bregman, A. V. Es, M. Jones, D. Kant, S. Montebugnoli, P. Picard, S. Rawlings, S. Torchinsky, J. G. B. D. Vaate, and P. Winlinson, “The aperture arrays for the SKA: The SKADS white paper,” SKA Memo 122, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.skatelescope.org [22] K. Gold, R. Silva, R. Worrel, and A. Brown, “Space navigation with digital beam steering GPS receiver technology,” presented at the 59th Annu. Meet. ION, Alberquerque, NM, 2003. [23] R. Silva, R. Worrel, and A. Brown, “Reprogrammable, digital beam steering GPS receiver technology for enhanced space vehicle operations,” presented at the Core Technologies for Space Syst. Conf., Colorado Springs, CO, 2002. [24] R. M. Joshi, A. Madanayake, and L. T. Bruton, “A 2D IIR spatially-bandpass antenna beamformer on a 65 nm Achronix SPD60 asynchronous FPGA,” presented at the 54th IEEE Int. Midw. Symp. Circuits Syst. (MWSCAS), Seoul, Korea, 2011. [25] A. Madanayake and L. T. Bruton, “A speed-optimized systolic array processor architecture for spatio-temporal 2-D IIR broadband beam ﬁlters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1953–1966, Aug. 2008. [26] A. Madanayake and L. T. Bruton, “A systolic-array architecture for ﬁrst-order 3D IIR frequency-planar ﬁlters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1546–1559, Jul. 2008. [27] A. Madanayake and L. Bruton, “A review of 2D/3D IIR plane-wave real-time digital ﬁlter circuits,” in Proc. IEEE Canadian Conf. Elect. Comput. Eng. (CCECE), 2005, pp. 1935–1941. [28] L. Liang and S. Hum, “Experimental veriﬁcation of an adaptive UWB beamformer based on multidimensional ﬁltering in a real radio channel,” in Proc. IEEE Ant. Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. (APSURSI), 2010, pp. 1–4. [29] T. K. Gunaratne and L. T. Bruton, “Beamforming of broad-band bandpass plane waves using polyphase 2-D FIR trapezoidal ﬁlters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 838–850, Mar. 2008. [30] D. H. Johnson and D. E. Dudgeon, Array Signal Processing: Concepts and Techniques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992. [31] B. D. V. Veen and K. M. Buckley, “Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial ﬁltering,” IEEE ASSP Mag., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 4–24, Apr. 1988. [32] T. K. Gunaratne and L. T. Bruton, “Tracking broadband plane waves using 2D adaptive FIR fan ﬁlters,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), 2006, pp. 4923–4926. [33] Q. Gu and M. N. S. Swamy, “On the design of a broad class of 2-D recursive digital ﬁlters with fan, diamond and elliptically-symmetric responses,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 603–614, Sep. 1994. [34] L. Khademi and L. T. Bruton, “Reducing the computational complexity of narrowband 2D fan ﬁlters using shaped 2D window functions,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), 2003, pp. 702–705. [35] S. Y. Kung, VLSI Array Processors. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1988. [36] E. S. E. K. Bromley and S. Y. Kung, “Systolic Arrays,” presented at the 2nd Int. Conf., Los Alamitos, CA, 1988. [37] N. Rama Murthy and M. N. S. Swamy, “On the real-time computation of DFT and DCT through systolic architectures,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 988–991, 1994. [38] K. K. Parhi and D. G. Messerschmitt, “Concurrent architectures for two-dimensional recursive digital ﬁltering,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 813–829, Jun. 1989. [39] A. Madanayake and L. T. Bruton, “A real-time systolic array processor implementation of two-dimensional IIR ﬁlters for radio-frequency smart antenna applications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), 2008, pp. 1252–1255. [40] J. Teifel and R. Manohar, “An asynchronous dataﬂow FPGA architecture,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1376–1392, Nov. 2004. [41] S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lo, S. N. Jean, and J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors-concept to implementation,” Computer, vol. 20, pp. 18–33, May 1987. [42] S.-Y. Kung, K. Arun, R. Gal-Ezer, and D. Bhaskar Rao, “Wavefront array processor: Language, architecture, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-31, no. 11, pp. 1054–1066, Nov. 1982. [43] S. Y. Kung, “VLSI array processors: Designs and applications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), 1989, pp. 313–320. [44] Achronix Semiconductor Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, “Achronix Semiconductor Corporation website,” 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.achronix.com

[45] S. Ramaswamy, L. Rockett, D. Patel, S. Danziger, R. Manohar, C. W. Kelly, J. L. Holt, V. Ekanayake, and D. Elftmann, “A radiation hardened reconﬁgurable FPGA,” in Proc. IEEE Aerosp. Conf., 2009, pp. 1–10. [46] T. K. Gunaratne, “Beamforming of temporally broadband bandpass plane waves using 2D FIR trapezoidal ﬁlters,” M.Sc. thesis, Dept. Elect. Comput. Eng., Univ. Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2006. [47] D. E. Dudgeon and R. M. Mersereau, Multidimensional Digital Signal Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. [48] J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing—Principles, Algorithms, and Applications, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995. [49] A. Madanayake, S. V. Hum, and L. T. Bruton, “A systolic array 2D IIR broadband RF beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Expr. Briefs, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1244–1248, Dec. 2008. [50] L. T. Bruton and N. R. Bartley, “Three-dimensional image processing using the concept of network resonance,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. 32, pp. 664–672, Jul. 1985. [51] P. Agathoklis and L. T. Bruton, “Practical-BIBO stability of N-dimensional discrete systems,” Proc. IEE, vol. 130, no. 6, pt. G, pp. 236–242, Dec. 1983. [52] D. Dudgeon, “Fundamentals of digital array processing,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 898–904, Jun. 1977. [53] M. Ghavami, L. B. Michael, and R. Kohno, Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley, 2004. [54] R. Armstrong, J. Hickish, K. Adami, and M. E. Jones, “A digital broadband beamforming architecture for 2-PAD,” in Proc. Wideﬁeld Sci. Technol. for the SKA, SKADS Conf., 2009, pp. 284–288. [55] K. K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation. New York: Wiley, 1999. [56] A. Madanayake, S. V. Hum, and L. T. Bruton, “Effects of quantization in systolic 2D IIR beam ﬁlters on UWB wireless communications,” Circuits, Syst., Signal Process., pp. 1–16, Jun. 2011. [57] M. Tull, G. Wang, and M. Ozaydin, “High-speed complex number multiplier and inner-product processor,” in Proc. 45th Midw. Symp. Circuits Syst. (MWSCAS), 2002, pp. 640–643. [58] “Achronix CAD Environment User Guide,” ver. 2.3.0, Oct. 2009. [59] C. D. Thompson, “A complexity theory for VLSI,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Comput. Sci., Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, 1980.

Rimesh M. Joshi (S’10) received the B.E. degree in electronics and communication engineering from Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, in 2008, and the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Akron, Akron, OH, in 2011. Arjuna Madanayake (M’03) received the B.Sc. degree in electronic and telecommunication engineering from the University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, in 2002, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, in 2004 and 2008, respectively. He is a Tenure-track Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH. Jithra Adikari (M’07) received B.Sc. degree in electronic and telecommunication engineering from the University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, in 2002, the M.Sc. degree in information technology from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, in 2010. He is with Elliptic Technologies, Canada. He was with the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Len T. Bruton (F’81) is Professor Emeritus with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Prof. Bruton was a recipient of many awards including the 2002 IEEE Circuits and Systems Education Award, the 1994 IEEE Outstanding Engineering Award, and the 1991 Manning Principal Award. In 1994, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He has been featured in the 1997 Great Canadian Scientists by Barry Shell.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document