237 Dementia

Topics: Human brain, Neurology, Dementia Pages: 6 (1896 words) Published: April 21, 2015


Unit 4222-237 Dementia awareness (DEM201)

Outcome 1 Understand what dementia is.

1.Explain what is meant by the term `dementia`.

The term `dementia` is often misunderstood and some people use terms `dementia` and `Alzheimer`s` interchangeably ,thinking that they are one and the same thing.The `Alzheimer`s Society defines dementia as an umbrella term that is used to describe the symptoms that occur whenthe brain is affected by certain diseases or conditions.Symptoms of dementia include loss of memory,confusion and problems with speech and understanding .These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases,including Alzheimer`s disease or damage within the brain ,for example, stroke.Dementia is progressive disease,and this simply means that the symptoms will gradually get worse. [dᵻmᶓn∫ᶕ]- a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental process caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders,personality changes and impaired reasoning.

2.Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia.

Each part of the brain functions differently and therefore when a region of the affected,individuals can lose significant functions such as:

FRONTAL LOBE-Planning and organising actions,learning tasks,initiating and stopping regulating behavior,abstract thought,logic,language,personality.

TEMPORAL LOBE-learning new information ,recording and storage of verbal memory(such as names),and visual memory(such as faces),attention.

PARIETAL LOBE- remembering sequences of actions,body sense(sensing where one limb is in relation to the rest of the body), sentence construction, calculation, interpreting visual information received from the occipital lobe,locating objects.

OCCIPITAL LOBE- processing information about colour,shape and movement received from the eyes.

3.Explain why depression,delirium and age related memory impairnent may be mistaken for dementia.

Major depression is common in the elderly,especially in those having hronic medical conditions and those living in long- term care institutions. Symptoms of depression in the elderly may include:

vague back and neck pain,
no energy,
no appetite,
difficulty sleeping,
problems with memory and concentration,
diminished functioning.

Mood equivalents of depression in older patients may be key too :if patients are irritable,demanding or importuning,they may be showing signs of depresive illness. They may also be a tendency for society to assume that major depression is a normal consequence of aging or at least a consequence of physical deterioration and illness,both of which are more likely in advancing age.The elderly also face many loses -spouses,friends,work and health -and normal bereavement is often difficult from a major depressive episode.Grief that does not begin to resolve within several months of the event may be harbinger of a major depressive episode and deserves closer investigation.

Delirium or acute confusional state is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome with core featuresof acute onset and fluctuating course,attentional deficits and generalized severe disorganization of behaviour.It typically involves other cognitive deficits ,changes in arousal (hyperactive, hypoactive or mixed),perceptual deficits,altered-sleep-wake cycle and psychotic features such as hallucinations and delusions.

Outcome 2 Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia.

1.Outline the medical model of dementia.

MEDICAL MODEL- The dominant model of dementia care is the medical one,which seeks to respond to the organic disease of the brain that results in neurological deterioration and cognitive impairnents (Cheston and Bender 1999;Kitwood 1997).Downs (2002) contends that the medical view sees dementia as a condition about which nothing can be done and that this attitude dominated the thinking of health care professionals until the early 1990s.

2.Outline the social...
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