21st CENTURY MANAGEMENT
Management function is one of the most significant social activities. Management has been present in this world since the commencement of societies. Administration is the skill, or knowledge, of reaching targets via individuals. As administrators also organize, administration may be inferred to mean accurately “looking over” i.e., making sure people do what they are supposed to do. More broadly, management is the process of designing and maintaining and environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4)
In nascent cultures almost every individual had to do manual labor. To avoid this burden from their shoulders, every person remains with the choices of going into politics or religion. Educated metropolitan societies headed to greater expertise, produced innovative professional substitutes to manual labor, and a work environment is established where the person who is working is differentiated with non-working class. Today in this 21st century, business is facing with many challenges like globalization, information technology, diversity and ethics. So a manger should know that how to adapt frequent changes in the business environment, what are the need of his product/service beneficiary which is the consumer and in which way he/she can take maximum output with effort from his/her resources. Philosophies are viewpoints with which individuals make sense of their world experiences (Stoner et. al. 1995, pp. 31-2). Theory is a systematic grouping of interdependent thoughts and doctrines that provide a framework to, or link together, a significant area of information. Scattered data are not information if the viewer has knowledge of the theory that will describe connections. Theory is “in its lowest form a classification, a set of pigeon holes, a filing cabinet in which fact can accumulate. Nothing is more lost than a loose fact” (Homans 1958, p. 5). Popular theories of 20th century comprises of Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth’s motion study, Classical Organizational Theory School comprising the works of Henri Fayol’s views on administration, and Max Weber’s idealized bureaucracy, human relation theory of Elton Mayo.
Globalization has made the world even faster than before. In this world of information communication technology when people and organization are connected on 24/7 basis changes are taking place abruptly. Everyday a new invention or innovation comes which can completely makes the existing product or service obsolete. The 20th Century targets of delivering goods and services so as to make money are undeviating targets. It can be achieved in its entirety. By economies of scale, “the structure” permits it to be done increasingly more inexpensively. Through offshoring and downsizing, the benefits can be continued. Guidelines can be put in place, procedures can be established, structures can be assembled and errors can be reduced. If mistakes do occur, people can be blamed and punished. An anticipated and reassuringly undeviating environment can be made. “The system” operates as a closed system. The customer is a thing to be manipulated rather than a person with whom the business has a connection to purchase the products and services created by organization. Likewise, the workers are treated as "human resources" to be mined and exploited and thrown out as needed. To combat the sudden changes in surroundings and conditions, the organization has to take into account the key factor which effects the environment of the business which is the PEST analysis. It refers to political and legal, economic, social and technological factors. The organization has to recognize which is the most important factor influencing the business and how the organization can respond to these changes. The primary work is to identify factors in the environment that creates threats or opportunities. A position analysis of within...
References: Koontz Harold and Weihrich Heinz (1990) Essentials of Management, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill.
Homans G. C. (1958) The Human Group (New York: Harcout, Brace and World).
Stoner James A. F., Freeman R. Edward, and Gilbert, Jr. Daniel R. (2003) Management, Sixth edition.
Schermerhorn Jr., John R., Dr James G. Hunt, and Dr Richard N. Osbom Organizational behavior, 2008
Robbins, Stephen P. and Timothy A. Judge Organizational Behaviour (13th Edition), 2008
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