Asian Social Science; Vol. 8, No. 13; 2012
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Ethnic Plurality and Nation Building Process: A Comparative Analysis between Rukun Negara, Bangsa Malaysia and 1Malaysia Concepts as Nation Building Programs in Malaysia
Mujibu Abd Muis1, Badrul Azmier Mohamed@Bakar2, Azlan Abdul Rahman3, Zaherawati Zakaria2, Nazni Noordin2, Jennifah Nordin4 & Mahazril ‘Aini Yaacob2
Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Terengganu, Dungun, Malaysia
Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah, Merbok, Malaysia
Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah, Merbok, Malaysia
Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Samarahan, Malaysia
Correspondence: Zaherawati Zakaria, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah, 08400 Merbok, Kedah, Malaysia. Tel: 60-4-442-4312. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received: July 4, 2012
Accepted: July 29, 2012
Online Published: October 19, 2012
This paper aims to make a comparative analysis of Malaysia’s nation-building process and critically look at these programs; namely the Rukun Negara, Bangsa Malaysia and 1Malaysia by looking at three main angles; ideology, race and ethnicity as the nation-building components. Initial survey has found out that tolerant government compromise to integrate the multiracial Malaysian has contributed to the problems. Even though the recent trends show there is a tendency of Malaysian to be ‘colour blind’ due to some kind of democratization and freedom of information access, still however, it did not show any sign that racial politics will disappear for good. Its unique compositions that based on multiracial, multi-religious, multicultural and multilingual as well as geographically divided has been identified by many scholars as an obstacle to the construction of Bangsa Malaysia. Several efforts from Rukun Negara (national ideology), Bangsa Malaysia and the latest, 1Malaysia have been and are being made by the government in realizing the prospect but no avail. The question now, how the Malaysian-style of racial accommodation will survive, is the nation-building program have been sufficient enough to dispose racial sentiments among the multiracial Malaysian, and if it is not, what should be happening. Keywords: Malaysian politics, consociationalism, primordialism, nationalism, communalism, nation state, nation-building
Since its year of independence, Malaysia has come to many glorious achievements and accomplishments. Its stability in politics has always been the solid platform for any advancements and extraordinary achievements in all aspects of life including social, economy, development, education and even sports. Malaysia’s capability has established its name as the new economic power of Asia and becomes a rapid developing country. This is something amazing and out of expectation. Malaysia has got its status in just a short period of time as the result of a very influential relationship between the leaders and the people. The multi-racial Malaysian is generally enjoying a better life than before independence. While in the international arena, the “mutual benefits and peaceful co-existence” of foreign policy adoption has continued to create a positive impact for Malaysia (Hilley, 2011). Hence, it is not surprising when Malaysia is often recognized as an example of a multi-racial developing country and often has been referred to by other developing countries. Unfortunately, this success does not leave any significant impact to the relationships between ethnic in Malaysia. After 55 years of independence, relationship among the major ethnics has maintained its status quo...
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