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2114 Final Exam Review Study Guide Questions

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2114 Final Exam Review Study Guide Questions
BIO2114 Final Exam Review

1. List the endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete.

2. What are the two major types of hormone based on structure?

3. What are the factors that can affect the response of target cells to a hormone?

4. Review the examples of hypersecretion and hyposecretion of some hormones and the disease states that result

5. Know the function or action of every hormone.

6. Know what structures are targeted by each hormone.

7. Know the major components of whole blood and the percentages of each.

8. How much blood is there in an average adult?

9. List the types of Leukocyte.

10. What is "anemia", and what are examples of different types?

11. What are the structural features of an erythrocyte?

12. What part of the hemoglobin molecule actually binds oxygen, and how many oxygen molecules can be carried in a single erythrocyte?

13. What are immature erythrocytes known as?

14. Know the difference between the terms thrombus and embolus.

15. How much blood does the heart pump per day?

16. What is the double-membrane sac surrounding the heart?

17. Name the four heart valves and know where they are located in the heart

18. Know the route of blood flow through the heart, including systemic and pulmonary circuits.

19. Name the tissue layers that make up the wall of the heart.

20. List the structures that comprise the conduction system of the heart, in order.

21. List the types of shock and the causes of each?

22. What are the two major factors affecting blood pressure?

23. How do sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve impulses affect heart rate, and what neurotransmitters are involved?

24. What are the major factors affecting peripheral resistance?

25. Know the major vessels that carry blood into and out of the heart.

26. Know the major differences between arteries and veins in terms of structure and blood flow.

27. Where are the cardiac and vasomotor centers located in the brain?

28. What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?

29. What is the function of lymph nodes?

30. List the names and locations of the three types of tonsil.

31. Name the two largest lymphatic vessels and the blood vessels into which they empty.

32. List the names and locations of the major clusters of lymph nodes in the body.

33. Name the components of the non-specific immune system

34. What are the major cell types involved in the specific immune system?

35. Which of the following statements best defines Cell-mediated immunity?

36. How are B cells activated?

37. How are T cells activated?

38. What are MHC proteins?

39. Name the cell types involved in non-specific immunity, and their specific roles

40. Name the types of T cells that are formed when a T cell is activated, and their functions.

41. Name the types of B cells that are formed when a B cell is activated, and their functions.

42. Know the difference between Active and Passive types of acquired immunity, including natural and artificial types.

43. What are the components of the upper respiratory tract?

44. What are the components of the lower respiratory tract?

45. What structures make up the nasal septum?

46. Name the passageways that make up the respiratory tract, from the trachea to the alveoli.

47. Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs?

48. In which bones would you find the nasal sinuses?

49. What are the ways in which oxygen is transported in the blood?

50. How is MOST of the oxygen transported?

51. How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?

52. How do levels of carbon dioxide affect the pH of blood?

53. What stimulates the chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid arteries?

54. Which has the greatest influence? (pertaining to the above question about chemoreceptors)

55. Where is the respiratory center in the brain located?

56. List the names and locations of the salivary glands.

57. Name the parts of the G.I. tract, beginning in the esophagus and ending in the anal canal.

58. Name the cell types that make up the gastric glands in the stomach, as well as what they secrete.

59. Name the sections of the small and large intestines.

60. Define the terms emulsification, mastication, deglutition, peristalsis, segmentation.

61. What is the function of bile and where is it produced?

62. List the types of teeth in the adult mouth and the normal numbers of each.

63. What are the functions of the liver?

64. Where the gall bladder located and what is its function?

65. Where does most of the digestion and absorption of ingested material occur in the G. I. tract?

66. What is the double-layer membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the digestive organs?

67. Which of the following shows the normal range for blood glucose levels?

68. Define Basal metabolic rate and Total metabolic rate. What are the units used?

69. Define the terms gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis. Where do these occur?

70. What are most vitamins used for in the body? (in general)

71. List the types of lipoprotein and know which are "good" and "bad". Know the desired numbers for each.

72. Define the terms chylomicron and micelle, and know when they are formed.

73. Know the two major classifications of vitamin.

74. Know the major effects of vitamin deficiencies and excesses.

75. What factors affect basal metabolic rate, and how?

76. Define the terms marasmus and kwashiorkor.

77. What is the functional unit of the kidneys, where urine is formed?

78. What are the two tissue layers of the kidneys?

79. Name the hormones that affect reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct, and know what effect they have.

80. Name the parts of a nephron from beginning to end.

81. Where does most of the reabsorption occur in the nephron?

82. What tubes carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder? From the bladder to the outside of the body?

83. What determines a person's ABO blood type? What determines the Rh blood type?

84. Know which blood type is most common and least common.

85. Which blood type is the universal donor? The universal recipient?

86. List the types of leukocytes, and know which are most and least numerous.

87. What are the stem cells in the bone marrow from which all blood cells derive?

88. Know which blood types are and are not compatible in terms of transfusions.

89. Know which leukocytes are "granulocytes" and which are "agranulocytes."

90. Know the terms "systolic" and "diastolic" and how they relate to a blood pressure reading.

91. Know the blood pressure categories.

92. Know which blood vessels are carrying blood into and out of the heart, and whether they are carrying oxygenated or deoxygenated blood.

93. Know the major coronary vessels of the heart.

94. Review the major arteries and veins of the systemic circulation.

95. Define "shock" and list the specific types and their causes.

96. What is the hepatic portal system and what is its function?

97. What are the primary muscles involved in breathing?

98. Know what happens to the pressure in the thoracic cavity during inspiration and expiration.

99. Review the respiratory volumes and capacities and know the normal values for each.

100. Understand the concept of gas exchange in the lungs and body tissues, including why oxygen and carbon dioxide move they way they do.

101. Where does Renin come from, why is it released, and what effects does it have?

102. Define the terms gonad and gamete, and know the female and male versions of each.

103. Know where sperm and testosterone are produced in the male.

104. List the passageways for sperm beginning in the testes and ending in exit from the body.

105. Know the accessory glands in the male and where they are located.

106. Name the parts of a mature sperm cell.

107. Know the tissue layers of the uterus, including the two layers that make up the endometrium.

108. Understand the fluctuations of hormone levels in the female during the monthly cycle, including the times when the hormones are at their highest and lowest levels.

109. Know the phases of the menstrual cycle.

110. Know the major events of the ovarian cycle, including when ovulation takes place.

111. Define the terms allele, autosome, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive.

112. Know the terms phenotype and genotype, and give examples of each.

113. Know the major types of inheritance.

114. Define and give an example of an x-linked trait.

115. Be able to give a phenotype when given the genotype.

116. Know the major fluid compartments in the body and how much total water is in the body of an average adult male.

117. List the major extracellular fluid compartments.

118. Know the major mechanisms involved in regulating fluid volume in the body.

119. Define and give examples of chemical and physiological buffers of pH.

120. Know the major mechanisms involved in regulating sodium and potassium loss in the body.

121. Know the major electrolytes in the ICF and ECF.

122. Know the difference between respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, and what would cause them.

123. Understand the effects of dehydration on water movement in the body, especially as it relates to cells.

124. Study the notes where ever you were weak. Focus on that. If you can't write a ¼ to ½ a page on any objective, you don't know it well enough.

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