19th Century Germany

Topics: Prussia, Germany, Otto von Bismarck Pages: 29 (9799 words) Published: April 16, 2014
Balance of Power
Bismarck’s systematic engineering of a German State. (Sometimes called Balance of Power) During Germany’s unification, the industrialization turns it into a major power. Class relations change because of the industrialization, which also created the New Money, the middle class and working class. Both are ambitious and want to play a part in politics. This eventually causes political instability. Nationalism also becomes a major theme, first emerged during the French Revolution. Why does Germany unify so late as a country?

“Sonderweg” – special path (german) basically states that Germany deviated from other states, keeping the aristocracy dominant. This is thought to be deterministic, as the sole cause for their rise to power. Why would something like this lead toward Nazism? Why did the Germans unify so late? Germany in the 1500’s is Swiss cheese; there are thousands of divisions throughout the country. All of the states around Germany are practically established as one place or empires. Why did Brandenburg eventually grow into Prussia?

Importance of Religion in Political Dealings and how Medieval Kingship worked: What makes a nation? What makes a country? What makes a Kingdom? Natural barriers provide a good barometer of shaping countries. Germany actually doesn’t have effective natural barriers. Ethnicity and Religion, Language and Currency, Culture, and so on. A nation has citizens. What is implied in a citizen? *Rights* and *Duty* There really is no feeling of obligation for citizens in a Kingdom. First off, there is a King and a King has his subjects (citizens). Again, WHY ISNT GERMANY UNIFIED? It had no common language at the time, it doesn’t have natural boundaries. It had some Duchies and Kingdoms, and also some Church states ruled by an Archbishop, but that’s it. A state has certain monopolies that no other institution can do like: Taxes

Laws
Raising an Army
Administer Justice

A king can do all that crap only on his own land. Kings powers are actually pretty limited.

The Holy Roman Empire Emperor is chosen by birthright.

The essence of the states would draw in wealthy princes. Eventually the powers of the Feudal system were consolidated into a signal point. The HRE (Holy Roman Emperor) is torn because he was a naturally elected Emperor not appointed.

Protestant Reformation
Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor
What exactly was it? Martin Luther eventually comes along (1483-1546) disgusted at the indulgences from the Church. Payment to the Church would be made in order to take time “off” or more easily get into heaven. The Catholic Church is corrupt, scandalous and abusive of their power. His idea of heaven was in service of your faith and not your works (Good deeds). It is given to one at birth, or not. Princes might find this appealing because it allowed them to force the Church’s power out of their territory. This reformation from Luther will give an incentive for people to gather behind and in the long run, unify. This was politically attractive, because different religions almost turn into some protection to keep people out. New Religion Good? Or Bad?

Peace of Augsburg, 1555.
“Cuius Regio, Eius Religio” Freedom of religion isn’t for all, just for the ruler of the principality. Good for Protestantism and good for the crazy Princes who don’t like the Holy Roman Empire .Obviously there was issues with this new stuff. Religion, Centralization, and Geopolitical Balance of Power. The Hapsburgs don’t like Protestantism.

Protestants even wish to ally with outside nations to keep the Catholics off their backs. WAR in 1618
Defenestration of Prague, people were thrown from windows, and survived because they landed in Poop. Catholics thought divine intervention saved them. The armies of France, Sweden, Denmark, just started roaming over lands and killing and razing. The Thirty Years War is Civil War of Religion, State Control vs. Central Control, a war of fortune. PEACE of...
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