16th century

Topics: Philippines, History of the Philippines, Trade Pages: 9 (3398 words) Published: November 3, 2014

Past Philippines and Present-Day Philippines
Similar - family ties are important and reliance on the sea for food Less-similar - tattooing to mark achievement in battle and slave raiding
Early Philippines
- existing system: social organization, material life and interisland contacts, may or may not have been influences of other Southeast Asian societies
Localities and Leadership: Characteristics
Most languages belong to Austronesian family of languages, stems from probable dispersal of people from today’s southern China when it was still part of SEA Kinship - how most social ties were expressed

Cognatic - both sons and daughters may have inheritance rights Fictive - ritual brothers, godmothers, godfathers
worshipping and offerings to divinity in the surrounding environment Ancestor worship - spiritual expression of family ties
Settlement Patterns
difficult land travel + low population density = isolated communities networks formed traded and competed, showed attachment to own locality
States or Political Systems - “ruled by personal relationships, not territorial boundaries” River-based Settlements
rivers as source of food and water, channels of transportation trading system between Upriver (needed salt and protein) and Coast (rice and forest products) which required social organization Datupower is not necessarily hereditary; could be claimed by anyone with talent superior stature puts him in endless competition (trade) with other DatusCoastal datus directly profits from the trade making them rich Datu Leadership

networks of personal loyalties, marriage alliances
polity was fluid and impermanent, always looking for better alliances seize people (short supply) unlike land which is plenty

Gender Regimes
efforts to redefine and regulate appropriate roles for men and women Women - ritual specialists with power to access and influence spirits
Localization and Growth of Regional Networks
Southeast Asia as a crossroads, a venue for interaction socially and culturally; fluidity foreign ideas adopted “enhaced” Southest Asians; localization of new elements became hierarchical (priorities are those of higher ranking) Hindu Influence

traded textiles for local and Chinese products
religious beliefs and political power
SEA ruler gaining stature (gods); Titles (Rajah); powerful datus as royal and noble; benefits of the ruler - concentration of political power Divine kingship – enabled growth of personal loyalties called mandalas (circles of kings) with 1 universal ruler Localizing Indian cultural practices

filtering out those that do not resonate
did not replace the old culture but added new meanings

Divine ruler → built religious monuments and temples proclaiming his devotion to the deities Localization of Indian beliefs and practices did not replace the old culture, but added new meanings and utilities to it Endless datu competition

Ex. Java and Cambodia
Ruled by divine kings
Supported by large populations who engaged in wet-rice agriculture These kingdoms left behind the monuments of Borobudur and Angkor WatDivine kingship → enabled the growth of wider networks of personal loyalties called mandalas (circles of kings), with one king at the center known as the universal ruler Angkor (Cambodia) and Srivijaya (Indonesia) – classic examples of a durable land-based mandala of the Hindu-Buddhist era SrivijayaTrade-based mandala that dominated east-west commerce through Strait of Malacca for 400 years Center: Sumatra

Had a powerful navy that:
Suppressed piracy
Provided safe passage to foreign ships
Sea nomads made up the military force
Was able to dominate shipping through the strait because China recognized how well it ordered trade and granted preferential status to ships arriving from Srivijayan ports Commercially: oversaw commerce in western manufactured goods (Indian cottons and beads, Middle Eastern glassware), local goods (jungle products: ivory,...
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