2. Name three of this era’s important inventors and their respective inventions. John Deere perfected the plow. Cyrus McCormick, in 1834, received a patent for a reaping machine, a horse-drawn device that allowed one man to cut and stack ten to twelve acres of grain in a single day. Samuel Colt made his mark on the firearms industry. He patented and manufactured a “six-shooter,” a pistol with a revolving cylinder which allowed a user to fire six times before reloading.
3. Why was the discovery of anthracite coal in western Pennsylvania important?
American farm production grew at a tremendous rate. In 1789, farmers had generally eked out only enough to feed their own families. But by 1861, the United States was producing nearly $2 billion worth of agricultural products each year.
4. How did the invention of the cotton gin increase the differences between the South and the rest of the nation?
The growth of the cotton kingdom, however, widened the gap between the South on the one hand and the North and the West on the other. Cotton growing, for one thing, revitalized slavery. In 1790, slavery had seemed an increasingly unprofitable and dying institution. With the advent of the cotton gin, however, many planters thought that slavery was necessary again.
1. Name two methods of surfacing roads in the nineteenth century.
Corduroy roads and toll roads
2. What event marked the beginning of the canal era?
The canal era began in 1817, when New York, at the urging of Governor DeWitt Clinton, began building a canal from Albany to Lake Erie.
3. What was America’s most important method of transportation by 1861?
The clipper ship
4. What was the first economically successful railroad in America? Who designed its first steam engine?
Baltimore & Ohio (B & O) Railroad and Peter Cooper