1152109653 2005 Ancient History Notes

Topics: Hatshepsut, Ahmose I, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, Ancient Egypt, Thutmose III / Pages: 6 (839 words) / Published: Mar 9th, 2015
New Kingdom

Hyksos:
Origins:
Historians disagree over origins
Agree Hyksos from North of Egypt

Reasons for coming to Egypt:
Egypt in chaos – in Second Intermediate Period
Hyksos attracted to natural resources, fertile land, and possible climatic change?

Wavering Control of Hyksos: piece of fragmentary palette from Apophis says Hyksos control of area was lessening
Adopted customs - name ‘re’, gods (seth), + scarab beetle

Contributions:
Egyptians learnt a lot about warfare:
1. Learnt to build defensive forts
2. New weapons – daggers, swords, COMPOSITE BOWS (better range + accuracy)
3. Egypt used copper - Hyksos introduced bronze (harder + durability)
4. Lighter body armour – more mobility and protection
5. Harness and two-wheeled horse drawn carriage – light, highly mobile
Hyksos brought:
-large standing loom – wider fabric, improves spinning technique
-new cattle – Hump Back Bull (beast of burden)
-olives and pomegranate trees

Roles of Pharaohs in expulsion of Hyksos:
Sekenare:
Mummy found with axe of Hyksos embedded in his head
Lawless:
“it was at the end of D17 that the pharaohs from Thebes began to rekindle nationalistic spirit”
“Sekenare consciously tried to expel Apophis and the Hyksos” – military conflict between them
Hayes: Sekenare revived special ceremonies in Egypt- traditional harpooning of hippo
Sekenare intercepted message from Apophis to Nubians, urging them to combine forces and conquer Egypt
Kamose:
Continued campaign to expel Hyksos (against advice of his Council)
Ahmose:
Drove Hyksos from Egypt to Sharuhen
Recaptured Egyptian control of Nubia
Re-established Egyptian borders
Model of Warrior Pharaoh image
Re-unified Egypt through:
Re-establishment of ma’at
Central government
Restored and built buildings + temples
Re-established trade routes
Organised Egypt into 42 nomes again
Glorifying Amun priesthood

Military Achievements
Ahmose Son of Ebana (SOE):
Expulsion Hyksos to Sharuhen
“… Ahmose captured Avaris” claims 3 Nubian campaigns
quash

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