1152109653 2005 Ancient History Notes

Topics: Hatshepsut, Ahmose I, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, Ancient Egypt, Thutmose III / Pages: 6 (839 words) / Published: Mar 9th, 2015
New Kingdom

Historians disagree over origins
Agree Hyksos from North of Egypt

Reasons for coming to Egypt:
Egypt in chaos – in Second Intermediate Period
Hyksos attracted to natural resources, fertile land, and possible climatic change?

Wavering Control of Hyksos: piece of fragmentary palette from Apophis says Hyksos control of area was lessening
Adopted customs - name ‘re’, gods (seth), + scarab beetle

Egyptians learnt a lot about warfare:
1. Learnt to build defensive forts
2. New weapons – daggers, swords, COMPOSITE BOWS (better range + accuracy)
3. Egypt used copper - Hyksos introduced bronze (harder + durability)
4. Lighter body armour – more mobility and protection
5. Harness and two-wheeled horse drawn carriage – light, highly mobile
Hyksos brought:
-large standing loom – wider fabric, improves spinning technique
-new cattle – Hump Back Bull (beast of burden)
-olives and pomegranate trees

Roles of Pharaohs in expulsion of Hyksos:
Mummy found with axe of Hyksos embedded in his head
“it was at the end of D17 that the pharaohs from Thebes began to rekindle nationalistic spirit”
“Sekenare consciously tried to expel Apophis and the Hyksos” – military conflict between them
Hayes: Sekenare revived special ceremonies in Egypt- traditional harpooning of hippo
Sekenare intercepted message from Apophis to Nubians, urging them to combine forces and conquer Egypt
Continued campaign to expel Hyksos (against advice of his Council)
Drove Hyksos from Egypt to Sharuhen
Recaptured Egyptian control of Nubia
Re-established Egyptian borders
Model of Warrior Pharaoh image
Re-unified Egypt through:
Re-establishment of ma’at
Central government
Restored and built buildings + temples
Re-established trade routes
Organised Egypt into 42 nomes again
Glorifying Amun priesthood

Military Achievements
Ahmose Son of Ebana (SOE):
Expulsion Hyksos to Sharuhen
“… Ahmose captured Avaris” claims 3 Nubian campaigns

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