101 Midterm Study Guide

Topics: Chicano, Aztec, Age of Enlightenment Pages: 22 (7378 words) Published: February 13, 2014
101 MIDTERM REVIEW
Terms: The definition and how they are significant

For the readings: explain the main points and how they relate to lecture

Please choose your list; add the definition and its significance Bartolome de Las Casas   
a Spanish colonist, a priest, first Bishop of Chiapas, was a scholar, historian and 16th century human rights advocate. Las Casas has been called the Father of anti-imperialism and anti-racism. Las Casas came to the Indies early, he knew Columbus and was the editor of the Admiral's journal. He knew conditions in the Americas first hand. As the reading in our packet indicates, he was present during Spanish genocidal attacks on the native population of Cuba. After coming to the realization that the Spanish treatment of the native population was unconscionable, Las Casas became a Dominican priest, and began travelling back and forth accross the Atlantic.        Treaty of Tordesillas    1494-

The Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World. The early 1400s brought about great advances in European exploration. In order make trade more efficient, Portugal attempted to find a direct water route to the India and China. By using a direct water route, Arab merchants, who owned land trade routes, were not able to make a profit off of the European trade merchants. After Columbus discovered the New World in 1492, it was clear that conflict would soon arise over land claims by Spain and Portugal. The Portuguese also wanted to protect their monopoly on the trade route to Africa and felt threatened. It was only after the realization that Columbus had found something big that land became the important issue. The newly discovered land held great potential wealth which would benefit European nations.                  Deconstruction-

Deconstructionism is the social construction of identity
* we are nothing other than that of which we make of ourselves -we define who we are-can be obtained from own agency or can be a lack of agency or submission.....we take on popular identities (identities created through language, etc.) -who we are is only what we claim to be

*how are we defined/how do we choose to identify ourselves. Identity is a struggle in many ways/an arena of struggle because there is space for debate       Importance of term: deconstructionalism is important because it explains the social formation of identity and how social factors play a vital role in the formation of identity. To make this term easier to understand here is Social Formation: racial identity, class identity-basically social formations are like minded people who identify within a familiar set of patterns.                  Ideology v.s Discourse -

Discourse: a coherent or rational body of speech or writing; a way of speaking about a topic.   * example: discourse of the West & the Rest
Ideology is also a set of  statements that produce knowledge & serves a particular group./class Ideology is more like bias... example: Chicano nationalism, American patriotism
Foucault argues that statements about the social, political, economic, & cultural world rarely T/F because they can be construed.... facts don’t really help us figure out or decide what is T or F...what discourse you employ or how you say it affects the outcome or the way it will be put out to be....freedom fighters” or  “terrorists”? * all knowledge has ideological intervention & knowledge can be produced by competing discourse

Discipline -
1) Training to act in accordance with rules; drill
2) Activity, exercise or a regimen that develops a skill * Chicana/o studies-develop critical skills 3) Punishment by correction and training
4) Behavior in accord with a set rules of conduct; behavior and order maintained by training and control 5) A set or system of rules and regulations
6) An instrument of punishment
7) A branch of instruction or learning * Chicana/o studies...
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