The Roman Empire or Republic or...Which Was It?
1. The story of Rome begins when twins, Romulus and Remus, who’d been raised by wolves, founded a city on ___________ hills. 2. What does SPQR stand for? It means Senatus Populusque Romanus (the Senate and the People of Rome), one of the ___________ of the Roman Republic. 3. Rome was divided into two broad classes: the ___________ – the small group of aristocratic families and the ___________, basically everybody else. The ___________ were drawn from the Patricians. 4. The Senate was a sort of a mixture of ___________ and giant advisory council. Their main job was to set the policy for the Consuls. 5. Each year the Senate would choose from among its ranks _______ co-Consuls to serve as sort of the chief executives of Rome. There needed to be two so they could check each other’s ___________, and also so that one could take care of Rome domestically, while the other was off fighting wars, and conquering new territory. 6. There were two additional checks on power: First, the _____-______ term. And secondly, once a senator had served as consul, he was forbidden to serve as consul again for at least _____ years. 7. The Romans also had a position of ___________, a person who would who’d take over in the event the Republic was in imminent danger. 8. The paradigm for this selfless Roman ruler was Cincinnatus, a general who came out of comfortable ___________ at his plantation, took command an army, defeated whatever enemy he was battling, and then laid down his command and returned to his farm. ___________ ___________ was heavily influenced by Cincinnatus when he invented the idea of a two term presidency. 9. So along comes Caesar. Coming as he did from the senatorial class, it was natural that Caesar would serve in both the ___________ and the ___________, which he did. He rose through the ranks, and after some top-notch generalling, and a gig as the governor of ___________, he decided to run for consul. 10. Caesar succeeded in becoming consul in 59 BC and thereafter sought to dominate Roman politics by allying himself with ___________, Rome’s richest man, and also with Rome’s other most powerful man, the general ___________. The three formed the so-called first ___________, and the alliance worked out super well, for Caesar. Not so well for the other two. 11. Caesar landed the governorship of ___________, at least the southern part that Rome controlled. He quickly conquered the rest of the territory and his four loyal armies—or ___________, as the Romans called them—became his source of power. Caesar continued his conquests, invading ___________ and waging another successful war against the Gauls. 12. While he was away, Crassus died in ___________ with the Parthians and Pompey, who had become Caesar’s rival and enemy, was elected Consul. 13. Pompey and the Senate decided to try to strip Caesar of his command and recall him to Rome. This led to a civil war between Caesar and Pompey. By 48 BCE Caesar was in total command of all of Rome’s holdings, having been named both ___________ and ___________. 14. Caesar set out to ___________ to track down Pompey only to learn that he’d already been assassinated by agents of the Pharaoh Ptolemy. Egypt had its own civil war at the time, between the Pharaoh and his sister/wife ___________. Caesar sided with Cleopatra. 15. Caesar made his way back from Egypt to Rome, stopping off to defeat a few kings in the east, and was declared dictator again. That position that was later extended for ten years, and then for ____. 16. By 45 BCE Caesar was the undisputed master of Rome and he pursued reforms that strengthened his own power. He provided land ___________ for his soldiers, restructured the ___________ of a huge percentage of Rome’s debtors, and also changed the ___________ to make it look more like the one we use today. 17. By 44 BCE, many Senators had decided that Caesar controlled too much of the power in Rome, and so they stabbed him _____ times on the floor of the Roman Senate. 18. The conspirators thought that the death of Caesar would bring about the restoration of the Republic, and they were wrong. A Second Triumvirate was formed by Caesar’s adopted son ___________, along with his second in command Marc ___________ and a general named Lepidus. This triumvirate was an awesome failure, degenerating into a second civil war. Octavian and Antony fought it out. Octavian won, changed his name to Caesar ___________, became sole ruler of Rome, adopted the title ___________, and started printing coins identifying himself as Divini Filius: Son of God. 19. So did Caesar destroy the Republic? No, he’s only really to blame if he was the first one to do that. And he wasn’t. Take the general Marius, for instance, who rose to power on the strength of his generalship and on his willingness to open up the army to the ___________, who were loyal to him ___________, and not to Rome, and whom he promised land in exchange for their good service in the army. This of course required the Romans to keep conquering new land so they could keep giving it to new legionnaires. Marius also was consul ______ times in a row 60 years before Caesar. 20. Or look at the general ___________ who, like Marius, ensured that his armies would be more loyal to him personally than to Rome, but who marched against Rome itself, and then became its dictator, ___________ thousands of people in 81 BCE, 30 years before Caesar entered the scene. 21. You’ll remember that empire had some characteristics that made it imperial: a ___________ system of government, continual military expansion, and a ___________ of subject peoples. The Roman Empire had all three of those characteristics long before it became The Roman Empire. 22. Rome started out as a ___________, and then it became a city state, then a ___________, and then a Republic, but that entire time, it was basically comprised of the area around Rome. 23. By the 4th century BCE, Rome started to incorporate its neighbors like the ___________ and the Etruscans, and pretty soon they had all of Italy under their control. If you want to talk about real expansion and diversity, you’ve got to talk about the ___________ Wars. In the First Punic War, Rome wanted ___________, which was controlled by the Carthaginians. Rome won, which made Carthage cranky, so they started the second Punic war. In 219 BCE, ___________attacked a Roman town and then led an army across Spain, and then crossed the Alps with elephants. Hannibal and his elephant army almost won, but alas, they didn’t and as a result the Romans got ___________. People in Spain are definitely NOT Romans which means that by 201 BCE Rome was definitely an empire. The third Punic War was a formality – Rome found some excuse to attack ___________ and then destroyed it so completely that these days you can’t even find it on a map. 24. Eventually this whole area and a lot more would be incorporated into a system of ___________ and millions of people would be ruled by the Roman Empire. And it’s ridiculous to say that Rome was a Republic until Augustus became Rome’s first official emperor, because by the time he did that, Rome had been an empire for ___________ years.