1. (a) Is Management a Science or an Art or Both? Explain

Topics: Scientific method, Epistemology, Science Pages: 2 (310 words) Published: June 26, 2013
Management is both a science a science as well as an art. It is a science because it has an organized body of knowledge consisting of theories and principles. It is an art because it involves getting results through practical applications of skills and knowledge. The science of management provides general principles for managing various aspects of business. But their application depends upon the experience, skills and competence of managers. Thus both art and science and complementary to each other as science teaches to know about the things and art teaches how to perform those things in practical situations.

1- Existence of theoretical knowledge: art presupposes the existence of certain theoretical knowledge. Experts in their respective areas have derived certain basic principles which are applicable to a particular form of art. 2- Personalized application: the use of basic knowledge varies from individual to individual. 3- Based on practice and certainty: all art is practical. Art involves the creative practice of theoretical knowledge.

1- Systematically body of knowledge: it's principles are based on a cause and effect relation. 2- Principles based on implementation: scientific principles were first developed through observation and then tested through repeated experimentation under controlled conditions. 3- Universal validity: scientific principles have universal validity and application.

Management is an art because in management your task is to better manage human resources and organizational matters in your circle of command & control.

It is science because your performance is measured and results are visible. For performance there would be some system in vogue on the basis of which your Organization is assessed and graded. So these all are scientific jobs that could be measured in quantitative formats.

So in my point of view Management is both a science and art. It is the art of...
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