Development is the process of gaining new skills in all areas of life. All children are individuals so, although they will all go through the same stages of development, they may not necessarily go through these at the same time. For this reason, the term ‘average child’ is used when talking about the process of development, but we should consider each child’s development progress individually. The development of a child is usually categorised into five main areas: Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, Social and Language. Physical Development.
A newborn baby will lie on his back with his head to one side and his head will lag when he is pulled up to sit. He will have primitive reflexes, such as grasping and sucking. By 3 months he will be able to kick his legs, play with his own hands and lift his own head. At 6 months, he will be able to sit with support and pass a toy from one hand to the other.He will have made a large transition by 9 months and may sit without support, crawl or shuffle and will begin to use his index, middle finger and thumb together to pick up small items. He will have begun to walk unaided by 18 months, can use a spoon and will attempt to kick a ball. By 2 years, he will be able to use a pencil to make simple forms, build a tower of six bricks and start to use his preferred hand. Between 3 and 5 years, he will have the capacity to jump from a low step, pedal a tricycle and turn single pages in a book. His gross motor skills improvement will mean that he will be able to walk backwards and forwards along a line and aim, throw and catch a large ball. By 8 years old he will be able to jump from heights and he will have improved his balancing skills enough to walk along a wall or beam and ride a bicycle without stabilisers. The improvement in his fine motor skills will allow him to control a pencil in a small area and do detailed drawing. He will also have the control to tie and untie his shoelaces and build intricate models. Intellectual (or...
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