1.0 THE BASIC CONCEPT OF DATA AND INFORMATION
In an organization, ‘Information’ is one of the most valuable and important resources. With the right information, from the right source, at the right time and place, the organization can make the best decision to achieve their goals. Information can be defined in so many ways. The term ‘information’ however is often confused with the term ‘data’. In some cases the term ‘information’ and ‘data’ has been used interchangeably.
As an analogy, consider data as pieces of LEGO bricks. In this state, each piece of brick has little value beyond its inherent value as a single object. However, if some relationship is defined among pieces of brick, they will gain value. By arranging the pieces of brick in a certain way, an object of toys begins to emerge. Information is much the same. Rules and relationship can be set up to organize data into useful, valuable information.
Figure 1: Example of business data and information
Data is defined as a stream of raw facts that representing events occurring in an organizations or physical environment which is unorganized and meaningless to the human beings. Data represents real-world things and has little valued beyond existence. Data can also define as the representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means. Data inside an organization could be:
a. originated from internal operations (e.g. transaction receipt) b. originated from external entities such as suppliers or customers (e.g. purchase order)
MO, LA, MD, KS
A, X, R, X, T, E, S
Jan, Jul, May, Feb
Figure 2: Examples of data
Information is a collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves which is meaningful and useful to people. Information is said to have a value of it self, and commerce often involves the exchange of information, rather than tangible goods.
Information is also defined as data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real perceived value in current or prospective decisions (Davis & Olson, 1985).
Examples: Pay check, Result slip, Invoice, Receipt, etc.
Figure 3: Example of information on a check
Information is an essential element in the operations and management of every business.
Employees in all positions at all levels of a business need information to do their jobs.
Nowadays, info. System and technologies have become vital component of a successful businesses and organizations.
You probably intend to be a manager, entrepreneur, or business professionals, and it is important for you to have a basic understanding of Info. Systems.
Info. System is known very useful in providing the information to help employees in an organization to operate and manage a business.
2.0 THE BASIC CONCEPT OF SYSTEMS
‘System’ generally can be most simply defined as a group of interrelated or interacting elements forming a unified whole. Examples of system are: digestion system, transportation system, traffic light system, etc.
However, in the field of information systems, the term ‘system’ is more appropriate defined as a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process.
Figure 4: Information system process
Examples: Inventory System, Transportation System, Respiratory System, Solar System, Financial System, Air Conditioning System, Judicial System, Respiratory System
Figure 5: Components of a System
3.0 THE BASIC CONCEPT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Information System is a collection of components that work together to provide information to help in...
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