1. How does sport help prevent children and teens from joining gangs

Topics: Crime, Criminology, Youth Pages: 9 (2626 words) Published: October 28, 2014
1.How does sport help prevent children and teens from joining gangs? One off the reasons that sport is such an effective tool is because it can provide an alternative structure and context for young people who would otherwise be attracted by negative social pursuits. We know sport can be a powerful tool for tackling youth crime. It can get young people off the streets, out of trouble and engage in education. Sport can act as a supportive method to young people by encouragement, and developing their confidence. The youngster can use sport as a way of finding themselves and by bringing themselves away from the environment that they might live in and not be comfortable in, by developing these projects, they are a way of distracting them from joining gangs and getting themselves into trouble as there seen as important to people involved in the projects. 2.What are the characteristics of effective sport projects as put forward in the report? Kickz is a national programme that has been funded by the premier league (Arsenal FC, Elthorne Park) and Metropolitan Police; they use football to work with young people aged 12-18 year olds that are at risk of offending in disadvantaged areas. Since the project has started it has helped transform the local areas; and there has been a reduction 66% in youth crime. Football is a way of keeping the younger generation busy and off the streets from causing trouble, it is also used the engage with hard to reach young people, to encourage positive relationships, and develop confidence, skills and aspirations to guide them away from crime. This project has many positive outcomes, such as the reduction of crime, improve social cohesion, and create employment and training opportunities. Another sport project that was set up as a distraction from crime was The Boxing Academy in Tottenham in London. The Boxing Academy provides sports based education, to young people between the ages of 14-16 years old that area at risk of offending and unable to succeed in mainstream schools. The Boxing Academy has been running since 2006 and has helped over 70 young offenders to get back on track. It keeps records on attendance, behaviour, literacy and qualifications achieved. It also stays in contact with its past pupils to see how they are doing and to see if they have gone back to getting into trouble and committing a crime. The last project is 2ND Chance. This uses sport to work with young people that are locked up in Ashfield Youth Offender Institution (YOI Ashfield). This project uses sport coaching to help young offenders to develop relationships, improve behaviour and is given a chance to take sports qualifications and be mentored through release. The young people that have taken part of this project have said that it really does work, but because of problems accessing statutory data on re-offending, these projects were unable to prove the impact has been a positive one. It has helped improve on behaviour and they they take up training opportunities.

3.Detail the information given in the summary of the report as to the economic costs of anti-social behaviour and the cost effectiveness of the programme offered by the charity in the case study. From the 3 years that Kickz have been running there have been financial savings from reduced crimes, with a total broken down by type of crime. This comes to a total of over £3.1m. Of this saving, £2.2m comes from the reduction in youth violence. This then reflects the work of youth workers and the police to tackle youth violence and tension arising from gangs in the area. To make the rate of crime go down, the investment of renovations were required to Elthorne Park to repair the football pitch, new basketball court, and generally improve the park. The total of the cost for these new renovations came to £255,320. With regards to The Boxing Academy the total cost to work with one young person for two years would work out on average to be £15,080. This means...

References: City boxing project 180 (2014) http://www.cityboxingproject.org/
Coalter, F. (2005) The social benefits of sport. Edinburgh: Sport Scotland.
Coalter, F. (2009) The value of sport: participation and life-long participation. Sport England.
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Oughton, C. and Tacon, R. (2007) Sport’s contribution to achieving wider social benefits. A report for the DCMS. London: Birkbeck University London.
Smith, A. and Waddington, I. (2004) Using ‘sport in the community schemes’ to tackle crime and drug use among young people: some policy issues and problems. European Physical Education review; 10: 279, p.294.
Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth .J Pediatr. 2005;146:732-7.
Taylor, P., Crowe, I., Irvine, D. and Nichols, G. (1999) Demanding Physical Activity Programmes for Young Offenders under Probation Supervision. London: Home Office.
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