資本的衝動

Topics: Capitalism, Capitalist mode of production, Das Kapital Pages: 5 (1276 words) Published: November 2, 2014

資本的衝動(一)
1。為什麼越發達,工作時間越長,壓力越大? 2。為什麼科技提升了,eradication of poverty仍不可及? 3。Great depression已是80年前,為何仍預測不了financial crisis? 資本的演化
福山:liberal democracy of N America and Western Europe is the final stage of human history because … based on free-enterprise capitalism … satisfy humankind’s needs … Derrida: never have poverty… affected as much people…

Darwin: Misery of poor caused by institutions but not nature? Ideology意識形態
Wealth gap
15%occupy 80% of wealth
Self sufficient economy alpha male (no economic status, only political status) Hunting: meat sharing
Barter economy
沒有利潤
Agricultural revolution surpluss population growth 定居 village and town greater division of labour ruling class(no longer從事生產) 貢獻(tribute) Money Market economy specialization profit motive

ExpolitationThe institutionalized expropriation of the fruits of labour of other people 政府不能直接生產
稅收令他們的水平高於人民平均生活水平
地主(產權私有)─土地兼併
原始expoitation: tax and rent
taxation 鞏固ruling class class oppression
History of profit
Trade for exchanging those you don’t have with those you have Business for making a living
Money: for flexibility
Different from capitalist’s profit
小商戶:simple reproduction
capitalist: 擴大再生產
CMC/MM’
商貿資本/工業資本
buy cheap and sell high
long distance trade
asymmetry of information
monopoly: reduce competition
capital accumulation
agrarian capitalism
industrial capitalism
Industrial revolution
Capitalism
Poverty, unemployment
Urbanization
Markket economy
Capital is not wealth
pure social relation
through creating profit constantly to make one’s wealth grows definition: making profit is a goal, not method
有大財富而不停增值:capitalist
big enterprise: gross profits-cost(inc all salaries and expenses that are tax exempted) distribute to share re investment make more money what is capitalism
Means of production: private ownership
Occupied by a small proportion of people
Free market: trade goods
Waged labourInterest: cost of capital
Rent: cost of land
Wage: cost of labourRate of profit: profit from capital?
No?!Return of capital: interest
Profit???? Cannot be calculated
Forfeited consumption, organization power, etc – justification of profits Profit rate一致:真正來源:surplus value
工人有不賣勞動力的自由嗎?
Wage slavery or starvation
Ultimate source of profits of entrepreneur?
The labor theory of value
Marx: At equilibrium, the price of a commodity explains nth
The price ratio**才是有意義的
自主勞動vs受僱勞動
necessary labor [wage:subsistence level] surplus labor[extra valueprofits] real cost: 沒法reduce的事
1000萬profit 1000萬的勞動力
500萬 real cost
wage must be less than 500萬
fixed capital:不能增加commodity價值,最多都係做倒咁多價值 工人:variable capital: 可創新價值
最早早早的capital都是來自surplus value/exploitation positive?normative?

資本的衝動(二)
Interest being the marginal cost of capital. Rent being that of land. Optimization of welfare
How about profits?
Market exchange fundamentally cannot generate profits
Only when 1. Long distant trade or 2. Lending loans can you generate profits Social norm(people may not expect sth more when borrowing you sth) market norm Capitalism
private ownership of means of production
free market ( monopolization?)
waged labor
Workers are indifferent of the existence of exploitation, but only aware of the deepening of exploitation Capitalist production
circulateon: free and equal(workers are free to shift their jobs) production: unfree and unequal
Entrepreneur
captial/means of production (Marx: they originates from labor as well!) risk-taking, management skills?
Why not reflect this on fixed wage but profits?
workers take risk as well
sometimes the execution is from waged labor as well (e.g. CEO) Why would they hold such a large sum of resources? Merely from saving? (yes for small shops, but how about large enterprise?) Western civilization

Greco-Roman Tradition(理性主義)
Hebrew-Judaist tradition
中世紀:文藝復與(Renaissance)
Reformation of Religion (打破神權統治)
Henry VII: Anglican Church South African: Calvinist
科學革命理性主義
Galileo...
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