‘Live High Train Low’: a Summary of Altitude/Simulated Altitude Training on Endurance Performance.

Powerful Essays
FDA Sport, Health & Fitness
PU2051: Developing Research Skills
By Sgt Manderson
‘Live High Train Low’: a summary of altitude/simulated altitude training on endurance performance.

For years elite athletes have been training using high altitude/hypoxic conditions so that their bodies will make the physiological adaptations to living in an oxygen deficient environment that will mean greater efficiency of oxygen transportation and utilisation at sea level (Saunders et al 2004). The purpose of this literature review is to examine the research on high altitude training and evaluate how the physiological adaptations a body makes in response to hypoxic condition and if these changes enhance endurance performance. The research and development that has come from these studies have incited some experts into condemning this approach as cheating (Sprigs 2005). This led to WADA 's consideration of artificial altitude environments as a method to be placed on the Prohibited List for 2007, a group of 76 physicians, bio ethicists, and sports scientists from 24 countries experienced in the field of human performance and hypoxia, developed a comprehensive set of arguments which were presented to the WADA Executive Committee. The committee decided that artificially-induced hypoxic conditions should not be placed on the 2007 List of Prohibited Substances and Methods.
The research strategy used by the author was to type the following key words "intermittent hypoxic training", "acclimatization", "haematology" and "endurance" into the University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN) Discovery search engine. Much of the material was found in the Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, and the European Journal of Applied Physiology.
Wilber (2011) reviewed several different high altitude models (see Figure 1); as well as Live High Train Low (LHTL, Live High Train High (LHTH) and Live Low Train High (LLTH). With in the literature it was identified that each model of Hypoxic



References: 5. Hinckson, E.A., Hopkins, W.G., 2005. Changes in running performance following intermittent altitude exposure simulated with tents, European Journal of Sports Science, 5 (1), p15-24. Available from http://ehis.ebscohost.com 6 7. Jelkmann, W., 2011. Regulation of erythropoietin production, Journal of Physiology, 589 (6), p1251-1258. Available from http://ehis.ebscohost.com 8 15. Sprigs, M., 2005. Hypoxic air machines: performance enhancement through effective training—or cheating?, Journal of Medical Ethics, 31 (2), p112-113. Available from http://ehis.ebscohost.com 16 18. Wilber, R.L., 2011. Application of altitude/hypoxic training, Journal Of Human Sport & Exercise, 6 (2), p271-286. Available from http://ehis.ebscohost.com

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