1) The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located in the walls of the GI tract organ. (854) 2) The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called digestion. (852-853) 3) The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing and storage. (881) 4) When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called chemical digestion. (854) 5) From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen. Lumen, mucosa, sub-mucosa, Muscularis externa, serosa. (856-857) 6) Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile? Cholecystokinin (CCK). (886) 7) At what age do children have all their primary teeth, and how many are there? 2 years old and 20. (862) 8) The solutes contained in saliva include sodium, potassium, Chlorine, Phosphate, Hydrochloride (K+, Cl-, PO43-, HCO3-). (860-861) 9) The stomach initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins. T/F (866, 871) 10) Chyme is created in the stomach. (866)
11) Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach? Parietal cells (870) 12) There are three phases of gastric secretion. (872-874) a. Cephalic—initiated by aroma, taste, sight, or thought of food b. Gastric—stimulated by local neural and hormonal mechanisms c. Intestinal—initiated by 2 means
i. Excitatory—by food entering the duodenum
ii. Inhibitory—by exterogastric reflex
1. Inhibit vagal nuclei in the medulla
2. Inhibit local reflexes
3. Activates sympathetic fibers causing pyloric sphincter to tighten 13) What are...
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