Worlds Together Worlds Apart Chapter 5 Outline

Topics: Zhou Dynasty, Warring States Period, Qin Shi Huang Pages: 9 (1900 words) Published: March 23, 2014

Chapter 5: Worlds Turned Inside Out, 1000 – 350 BCE Introduction
Leaders became thinkers and teacher, not kings
“the axial age”- pivotal period between ancient empires and the successor empires Alternative Pathways and Ideas
In Eastern Zhou China, large territorial states and had formulas for ordering human behavior In Greece and the Levant, dynamic city-states and new ideas about good governance East and South Asia, Caribbean coast of Mexico, coasts of Mediterranean have sacred categories and religious experiences Second generation societies- building on predecessors and representing departure from ancient civilization Thinkers in Greece and Ganges river valley question society values and beliefs Eastern Zhou China

Political degeneration leads to political and intellectual innovation Emergence of Eastern Zhou dynasty = Spring and Autumn period; ends with Warring states period 1. The Spring and Autumn Period
Regional states have power over Zhou central government
Purified iron emerges and spreads cheap power to local authorities Lord of the Wu state begins the Grand Canal connecting Yellow with Yangzi 2. The Warring States Period
Wars and shifting political alliances involved unprecedented scale of military mobilization and resources Qin state replaced Zhou in 221 BCE (terracotta warriors buried with first emperor) Reformed coalitions to maintain balance of power; impersonal legal codes enhanced these (punishment based on crime) 3. New Ideas and the “Hundred Masters”

Confucius was most prominent teacher; others either expanded on his ideas or opposed them (Hundred Schools of Thought) A. Confucius (551 – 479 BCE)
The Analects- teachings of Confucius according to his followers; had extraordinary influence Moral framework stressed correct performance of ritual, family responsibility, and perfection of moral character (to become a “superior man”) Classified people by education more than birth

B. Mo Di
Mohism- each man obligated to all others; promoted social order, material benefits for all, population growth Opposed conquest as it is waste of resources but recognized need for defense from marauders

“Axial age”

2nd Gen societies

Grand Canal

Qin

Confucius

Mozi (Mohism)

C. Laozi and Zhuangzi
Daoism- scorned rituals and social hierarchy; best way to live was to follow natural order (dao- the Way) Ruler is to interfere as little as possible with the natural processes of change Wuwei- “doing nothing”, how one should rule

D. Xunzi and Han Fei
Legalism or Statism- men and women were innately bad; required moral education and authoritarian control Ruler should have harsh, unbending laws
4. Scholars and the State
Scholars served rulers to make better state
Qin state achieved order through Legal approach but borrowed from other philosophies 5. Innovations in State Administration
Officials drawn from shi (previously knights, now bureaucrats); called gentlemen or superior men Shang Yang- reformed Qin domain by dividing into administrative districts and appointing people to take care of each Harsh penal code stressed collective responsibilities

6. Innovations in Warfare
Registered rural population for military recruitment
Massive infantries of peasants using iron laces fought to the death; increasingly sophisticated warfare Siege warfare- elite troops used iron armor and crossbows, siege ladders used to scale urban walls 7. Economic, Social, and Cultural Changes

Environmental problems- deforestation, erosion of fields, extinction of animals; many migrated south Large population put stress of food sources; standard of living began to lower for commoners; many migrated Crop rotation and iron plows increased productivity; in the short term, food surplus New economic method- peasants had right to land in exchange for taxes and military service Gender relations- sexes become more separated and behavior constrained by moral and legal...
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