A group is a team of people, who are motivated to join, perceive each other as members and interact with each other. A group may also be defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. So simply congregation of people is not a group. Congregation of person must satisfy three conditions to become a group. There are:
□ People must interact each other,
□ They must psychologically recognize each other and □ They should perceive themselves as a group.
The term group can be defined in a number of different ways, depending on the perspective that is taken. A comprehensive definition would say that if a group exists in an organization, its members: □ Are motivated to join
□ Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people □ Contribute in various amounts to the group processes (that is, some people contribute more time or energy to the group than do others) □ Reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction Individuals formed group for the following reasons-
□ To satisfy mutual interests
□ To achieve security
□ To fill social needs
□ To fill need for self esteem.
Groups are formed mainly for two reasons, the first is to make administration of individuals easier and the second is to get complex tasks done more effectively. The group is made up of individuals who have individual needs which is turn require team need once they are formed. Different people bring different needs to a group and this sometimes makes it difficult for the group to work effectively. The way a group works together is call “Group Dynamics.”
THE DYNAMICS OF GROUP FORMATION
Why do individuals form into groups? A more comprehensive theory of group formation than mere propinquity comes from the classic theory of George Homans based on activities, interactions, and sentiments. These three elements are directly related to one another. The more activities persons share, the more numerous will be their interactions and the stronger will be their sentiments (how much the other persons are liked or disliked); the more interactions among persons, the more will be their shared activities and sentiments; and the more sentiments persons have for one another, the more will be their shared activities and interactions. This theory lends a great deal to the understanding of group formation and process. The major element is interaction. Persons in a group interact with one another not just in the physical propinquity sense or increasingly electronically, but also to accomplish many group goals through cooperation and problem solving. There are many other theories that attempt to explain group formation.One of the more comprehensive is Theodore Newcomb’s classic balance theory of group formation. The theory states that persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals. Figure 11.1 shows this balance theory. Individual X will interact and form a relationship/group with individual Y because of common attitudes and values (Z). Once this relationship is formed, the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs, an attempt is made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves. Both propinquity and interaction play a role in balance theory.
Reasons of work group formation
Why work-groups are formed? The question may be answered that work-groups are formed to enjoy certain benefits or advantages by their members, which they cannot enjoy individually. So, they feel attraction 'towards the group. The members can enjoy the under mentioned benefits through the groups: □ Companionship and Friendship:...
References: * Organizational Behavior (Tenth Edition) - Luthans, Fred. (2005).
* Managing Human Resources (Fourth Edition) - Mejia, Gomez. Balkin, David & Cardy, Rober. (2006).
* Organizational Behavior (Seventh Edition) - Robbins, P., Stephen. (1996).
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